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FIVE HUNDRED AND SEVEN 

Mechanical Movements, 

EMBRACING 

ALL THOSE WHICH ARE MOST IMPORTANT IN 

DYNAMICS, HYDRAULICS, HYDROSTATICS, PNEUMATICS, STEAM 

ENGINES, MILL AND OTHER GEARING, PRESSES, HOROLOGY, 

AND MISCELLANEOUS MACHINERY ; 

AND INCLUDING 

MANY MOVEMENTS NEVER BEFORE PUBLISHED 

AND 

i I 

SEVERAL WHicft HAVE 0NLY RECENTLY COME INTO USE. 



HENRY T. BROWN. 



MtCHTEENTH EDITION'. 
i 

PUBLISHED By BROWN & SEWARD, 

261-263 BROADWAY. 



1896. 



JH,v,-„ „;, ^^ . OCW ^ ' 



Copyright 1868, 

by HENRY T. BROWN, 

Renewed 1896. 



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PREFACE. 



The want of a comprehensive collection of illustration? and descriptions of Me- 
chanical Movements has long been seriously felt by artisans, inventors, and stu- 
dents of the mechanic arts. It was the knowledge of this want which induced the 
compilation of the collection here presented. The movements which it contains 
have been already illustrated and described in occasional installments scattered 
through five volumes of the American Artisan, by the readers of which their 
publication was received with so much favor as was believed to warrant the ex- 
pense of their reproduction with some revision in a separate volume. 

The selection of the movements embraced in this collection has been made 
from many and various sources. The English works of Johnson, Willcock, Wylson, 
and Denison have been drawn upon to a considerable extent, and many other 
works — American and foreign — have been laid under contribution; but more than 
one-fourth of the movements — many of purely American origin — have never pre- 
viously appeared in any published collection. Although the collection embraces 
about three times as many movements as have ever been contained in any previous 
American publication, and a considerably larger number than has ever been contaiaied 
in any foreign one, it has not been the object of the compiler to merely swell the num- 
ber, but he has endeavored to select only such as may be of really practical value ; 
and with this end in view, he has rejected many which are found in nearly all the 
previously published collections, but which he has considered only applicable to 
some exceptional want. 

Owing to the selection of these movements at such intervals as could be 
snatched from professional duties, which admitted of no postponement, and to the 
engravings having been made from time to time for immediate publication, the 
classification of the movements is not as perfect as the compiler could have desired; 
yet it is believed that this deficiency is more than compensated- for by the copi- 
ousness of the Index and the entirely novel arrangement of the illustrations and 
the descriptive letter-press on opposite pages, which make the collection — large 
and comprehensive as it is — more convenient for reference than any previous one. 

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iv Mechanical Movements. 


INDEX 


|^=* In this INDEX the numerals do not indicate the pages, but they refer to the 


engravings and the numbered paragraphs. Each page of the letter-press contains all 


the descriptive matter appertaining to the illustrations which face it 


A. 


Crank, substitutes for the, 39, 116, 123, 156, 157, 167, 394. 


iEolipile, 474. 


variable, 94. 




Cranks, 92, 93, 98, 100, 131, 145, 146, 156, 158, 166, 175, 176, 


B. 


220, 230, 231, 268, 279, 354, 401. 


Balance, compensation, 319. 


bell, 126, 154, 156, 157. 


Barometer, 501. 


compound. 168, 169. 


Blower, fan, 497. 


Cyclograph, 403, 404. 


Brake, friction, 242. < 


D. 


a 


Differential movements, 57, 58, 59, 60, 61, 62, 260, 264. 




Drag-link, 231. 


Cams, 95, 96, 97, 117, 130, 138, i49» ^So. 165, 217, 272, 276. 


Drill, 359- 


Capstans, 412, 491. 


fiddle, 124- 


Centrolinead, 408. 


Persian, 112. 


Clutclies, 47, 48, 52, S3, 361. 


Drills, cramp, 379, 38a 


Chasers, 375, 


Drop, 85. 


Clamps, bench, 174, 180, 381. 


Drum and rope, 134. 


screw, 190. 


Driver, pile, 251. 


Cock, four-way, 395. 


Dynamometers, 244, 372. 


Column, oscillating, 445, 446. 


E. 


Compasses, proportion, 409. 




Counters of revolutions, 63, 64, 65, 66^ 67, 68, 69, 70, 71. 


Eccentrics, 89, 90, 91, 135, 137. 


Coupling, union, 248. 


Ejectors, bilge, 475, 476. 



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Mechanical Movements. 


V 


Ellipsograph, 152. 


Gearing, variable, 38. 




Engine, disk, 347. 


worm, 29, 31, 64, 66, 67, 143, 151, 202. 




Engines, rotary, 425, 426, 427, 428, 429. 


Governors, 147, 161, 162, 163, 170, 274, 287, 357. 




steam, 175, 326, 327. 328, 329, 33°. 33i, 332, 334, 


Guides, 326, 327, 330, 331. 




335, 336, 337» 338, 339, 34°, 34i. 342, 343, 344. 


Gyroscope, 355. 




345, 346, 421, 422, 423, 424- 


H. 




valve gear for, 89, 90, 91, 117, 13s, i37, iSo, 171. 


Hammer, atmospheric, 471. 




17Q, 181, 182, 183, 184, 185, 186, 187, 188, 189, 


bell, 420. 




286, 418. 


compressed air, 472. 




Epicyclic trains, 502, 503, 504, 505, 506, 507. 


steam, 47. 




Escapements, 234, 238, 288, 289, 290, 291, 293, 293, 294, 295, 


Hammers, trip, 72, 353. • 




296, 297, 298, 299, 300, 301, 302, 303, 304, 305, 


Helicograph, 384. 




306, 307. 308, 309. 310, 3", 312, 313, 314, 396, 


Hook, beat-detaching, 492. 




402. 


releasing, 251. 




F. 
Fountain, Hiero's, 464. 


Hooks, centrifugal check, 253. 




Hyperbolas, instrument for drawing, 405. 




Fusees, 46, 35a 


I. 




G. 

Gasometers, 479, 480. 


Intermittent movements, 63, 64, 65, 66, 67, 68, 69, 70, 71, 


73, 


Gauge, bisecting, 410. 


74, 75, 76. 88, 211, 23s, 241, 364, 398. 




Gauges, pressure, 498, 499, 500- 






Gear, steering, 490. 


J. 




Gearing, bevel, 7, 43, 49. S3» 74. 200, 226, 495. 


Jack, hydrostatic, 467. 




brush, 28. 


lifting, 389. 




capstan, 412. 


Joint, ball and socket, 249. 




conical, 37. 


bayonet, 245. 




crown, 26, 219. 


universal, 51. 




eccentric, 219, 222. 


L. 




elliptical, 33, 35, 221. 


Ladder, folding, 386. 




face, 54. 


self-adjusting, 387. 


.-^ 


friction, 28, 32, 45, 413. 


Lazy-tongs, 144, 


/ 


intermittent, 63, 64, 65, 66, 67, 68, 69, 70, 71, 73, 74, 


Level, self-recording, 411. 




75. 76, 77. 78. 79, 80, 81, 82, 83, 84. 


Lever, bell-crank or elbow, 126, 155, 156, 157. 




internal, 34, 55, 57- 


knee, 164. 




irregular, 201. 


Lewis, 493. 




multiple, 27. 


Link, detachable chain, 399. 




mutilated, 74, 114. 


M. 




scroll, 191, 414. 






sector, 38. 


Machine, Bohnenberger*s, 356. 




spur, 24. . 


drilling, 366. 




step, 44. 


polishing, 370, 393. 




stud, 197- 


punching, 140. 




sun and planet, 39. 


warp-dressing, 383. 




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Mechanical Movements. 



Main, flexible water, 468. 

Maintaining power, 320, 321. 

Meter, gas (wet) 481 ; (dry) 483. , 

water, 440. 
Mill, Barker's, 438. 
crushing, 375. 
tread, 377. 
wind, 485, 486. 
Miscellaneous movements, loi, 120, 153, 172, 173, 196, 203, 
209, 210, 217, 2 1 8, 232, 23s, 247, 252, 261, 262, 
263, 265, 273, 281, 282, 348, 360, 368, 385, 390, 
391, 415, 417, 447. 469, 484. 
Motion, alternating traverse, 143. 
rocking, 419. 
self-reversing, 87. 
shuttle, 397. 
Motions, feed, 99, 121, 155, 284, 388, 400. 
link, 171, 185.^ 
parallel, 328, 329, 332, 333, 334, 335, 336, 337, 338, 

339, 340, 341, 343. 
pump, 86, 127, 283. 
traverse, 350, 362. 
variable traverse, 122, 125, 142, 178. 



Pantograph, 246. 

Parabolas, instrument for drawing, 406. 

Paradox, mechanical, 504. 

idulum, conical, 315. 
Peh^ulums, 315. 3^6, 317, 369. 

compensation, 316, 3x7. 
Pinion," 8 1, 113. 

lantern, 199. 

mutilated, 114. 

slotted, 208. 

two-toothed, 205. 
Power, horse, 376. 
Presses, 105, 132, 133, 164. • 

hydrostatic, 466. 
Propeller, screw, 488. 
Pulley, expanding, 224. 

friction, 267. 
Pulleys, I, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, lo^ 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 



Pulleys, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 58, 59, 60, 61, 62, 243, 25s, 
256* 257. 258, 259, 267. 
anti-friction bearing for, 27a 
chain, 227, 228, 229. 
Pump, air, 473. 

balance, 465. 
bellows, 453. 
chain, 462. 
diaphragm, 454. 
steam-siphon, 476. 
Pumpe, double-acting, 452, 453. 
force, 450,451, 452. 
lift, 448, 449. 
rotary, 455, 456. 
Punching machine, 140. 

R 

Rack, mangle, 197, 198, 199. 

mutilated, 269. 
Racks and pinions, 81, 113, 114, 115, zz8, 119, 137, 139, 

197, 198, 199, 269, 283. 
Ram, Montgolfier*s water, 444. 
Ratchets and pawls, 49, 75, 76, 78, 79, 80, 83, ao6, 335, 236, 

371. 
Regulator, gas, 483. 

watch, 318. 
Reversing motion, self, 87. 
Revolver, 277, 
Rollers, oblique, 304, 365. 
Rolls, anti-friction, 250. 

drawing, 496 

feed, 19s, 307, 388. 
Rulers, parallel, 333, 333, 334, 335, 349, 367. 



Saw, endless band, 141. 
gig. 392. 
pendulum, 378. 
Screw, Archimedes', 443. 
differential, 366. 
double reversed, 108. 
micrometer, iii. 
Screws, 103, 103, 104, 105, 109, 113, 303, 285. 

endless, 31, 64, 66, 67, 143, 195, 207, 275. 



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Screi«s» right-and-left hand, no, 151. 

Sectors, toothed, 130, 133, 223, aSa. 

See-saw, 363. 

Shears, 130. 

Stamps, 85, 3SI. 

Stand, mirror, 382. 

Stop for hoisting apparatus, 278. 

for lantern wheels, 233. 

for ratchet wheels, 240. 

for spur gear, 239. 
Stops for winding watches, 2x2, 213, 2x4, 2x5. 



Test, friction, 373. 

Throstle, spinning, 496. 

Toggle-joint, 140. 

Tongs, lifting, 494. 

Trap, steam, 477, 478. 

Treadles, 82, 158, X59, x6o, 374, 401, 416. 



Water, machines for raising, 439, 44X, 44a, 443. 444. 457, 

458, 459. 460, 461. 
Weir, self-acting, 463. 
Wheel, cam, 136. 

lantern, 233. 

Persian, 441. 

pin, 208. 

rag, 237. 

sprocket, 254. 

steering, 490. 

waved, 165. 
Wheels, crown, 26, 219, 237. 

mangle, 36, 192, 193, X94, 371. 

paddle, 487, 489. 

water, 430, 431, 43a, 433, 434» 43S> 436, 437, 438. 
Windlass, Chinese, 129, 352. 

friction, 280. 
Wind-mills, 485, 486. 
Wipers, 85, X28. 



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1. Illustrates the transmission of power by 
simple pulleys and an open belt. In this 
case both of the pulleys rotate in the same 
direction. 

2. Differs from i in the substitution of a 
crossed belt for the open one. In this case 
the direction of rotation of the pulleys is re- 
versed. 

By arranging three pulleys, side by side, 
upon the shaft to be driven, the middle one 
fast and the other two loose upon it, and 
using both' an open and a crossed belt, the 
direction of the said shaft is enabled to be 
reversed without stopping or reversing the 
driver. One belt will always run on the 
fast pulley, and the other on one of the loose 
pulleys. The shaft will be driven in one di- 
rection or the other, according as the open 
or crossed belt is on the fast pulley. 

3; A method of transmitting motion from 
a shaft at right angles to anotlier, by means 
of guide-pulleys. There are two of these 
pulleys, side by side, one for each leaf of the 
belt. 

4. A method of transmitting motion from 
a shaft at right angles to another whose axis 
is in the same plane. This is shown with a 
crossed belt. An open belt may be used, 
but the crossed one is preferable, as it gives 
more surface of contact. 

5. Resembles i, with the addition of a 
movable tightening pulley, B. When- this 
pulley is pressed against the band to take 



up the slack, the belt transmits motion from 
one of the larger pulleys to the other ; but 
when it is not, the belt is so slack as not to 
transmit motion. 

6. By giving a vibratory motion to the 
lever secured to the semi-circular segment, 
the belt attached to the said segment imparts 
a reciprocating rotary motion to the two pul- 
leys below. 

7. A method of engaging, disengaging, 
and reversing the upright shaft at the left. 
The belt is shown on the middle one of the 
three pulleys on the lower shafts, a, b, which 
pulley is loose, and consequently no move- 
ment is communicated to the said shafts. 
When the belt is traversed on the left-hand 
pulley, which is fast on the hollow shaft, b, 
carrying the bevel-gear, B, motion is com-, 
municated in one direction to the upright 
shaft ; and on its being traversed on to the 
right-hand pulley, motion is transmitted 
through the gear, A, fast on the shaft, a, 
which runs inside of b, and the direction of 
the upright shaft is reversed. 

8. Speed-pulleys used for lathes and other 
mechanical tools, for varying the speed ac- 
cording to the work operated upon. 

9. Gone-pulleys for the same purpose as 
8. This motion is used in cotton machin- 
ery, and in all machines which are required 
to run with a gradually increased or dimin- 
ished speed. 

10. Is a modification of 9, the pulleys be- 
ing of different shape. 



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11. Another method of effecting the same 
result as 3, without guide-pulleys. 

12. Simple pulley used for lifting weights. 
In this the power must be equal to the weight 
to obtain equilibrium. 

13. In this the lower pulley is movable. 
One end of the rope being fixed, the other 
must move twice as fast as the weight, and 
a corresponding gain of po;iver is conse- 
quently effected. 

14. Blocks and tackle. The power ob- 
tained by this contrivance is calculated as 
follows: Divide tlie weight by double the 
number of pulleys in the lower block ; the 
quotient is the power required to balance 
the weight. 

1 5. Represents what are known as White's 
pulleys, which can either be made with sep- 



arate loose pulleys, or a series of grooves 
can be cut in a solid block, the diameters 
being made in proportion to the speed of the 
rope ; that is, i, 3, and 5 for one block, and 
2, 4, and 6 for the other. Power as i to 7. 

16 and 17. Are what are known as Span- 
ish bartons. 

18. Is a combinati9n of two fixed pulleys 
and one movable pulley. 

19, 20, 21, and 22. Are different arrange- 
ments of pulley.*:. The following rule applies 
to these puJIeys : — In a system of pulleys 
where each pulley is embraced by a cord at- 
tached at one end to a fixed point and at the 
other to the center of the movable pulley, the 
effect of the whole will be == the number 2, 
multiplied by itself as many times as there 
are movable pulleys in the system. 



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23. A contrivance for transmitting rotary 
motion to a movable pulley. The pulley 
at the bottom of the figure is the movable 
one ; if this pulley were, raised or depressed^ 
the belt would be slackened or tightened 
accordingly. In order to keep a uniform 
tension on the belt, a pulley, A, carried in a 
frame sliding between guides (not shown), 
hangs from a rope passing over the two 
guide-pulleys, B, B, and is acted upon by 
the balance weight, C, in such manner as to 
produce the desired result 

24. Spur-gears. 

25. Bevel-gears. Those of equal diame- 
ters are termed " miter-gears." 

26. The wheel to the right is termed a 
" crown-wheel ;" that gearing with it is a 
spur-gear. These wheels are not much used, 
and are only available for light work, as the 
teeth of the crown-wheel must necessarily be 
thin. 



27. " Multiple gearing " — a, recent inven- 
tion. The smaller triangular wheel drives 
the larger one by the movement of its at- 
tached friction-rollers in the radial grooves.' 

28. These are. sometimes called "brush- 
wheels." The relative speeds can be varied 
by changing the distance of the upper wheel 
from the center of the lower one. The one 
drives the other by the friction or adhesion, 
and this may be increased by facing the lower 
one with india-rubber. 

29. Transmission of rotary motion from 
one shaft at right angles to another. The 
spiral thread of the disk-wheel drives the 
spur-gear, moving it the distance of one 
tooth at every revolution. 

30. Rectangular gears. These produce a 
rotary motion of the driven gear at a varying 
speed. They were used on a printing-press, 
the type of which were placed on a rectangu- 
lar roller. 



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31. Worm or endless sCrew and a worm- 
wheel. This effects the same result as 29 ; 
and as it is more easily constructed, it is 
oftener used. 

32. Friction-wheels. The surfaces of 
these wheels are made rough, so as to bite 
as much as possible ; one is sometimes faced 
with leather, or, better, with vulcanized india- 
rubber. 

33. Elliptical spur-gears. These are used 
where a rotary motion of varying speed is 
required, and the variation of speed is de- 
termined by the relation between the lengths 
of the major and minor axes of the ellipses. 

34. An internally toothed spur-gear and 
pinion. With ordinary spur-gears (such as 
represented in 24) the direction of rotation is 
opposite ; but with the internally toothed 
gear, the two rotate in the same direction ; 
and with the same strength of tooth the 
gears are capable of transmitting greater 
force, because more teeth are engaged. 

35. Variable rotary motion produced by 
uniform rotary motion. The small spur- 
pinion works in a slot cut in the bar, which 
turns loosely upon the shaft of the elliptical 
gear. The bearing of the pinion-shaft has 
applied to it a spring, which keeps it en- 
gaged ; the slot in the bar is to allow for the 
variation of length of radius of the elliptical 
gear. 

36. Mangle-wheel and pinion — so called 



from their application to mangles — converts 
continuous rotary motion of pinion into re- 
ciprocating rotary motion of wheel. The 
shaft of pinion has a vibratory motion, and 
works in a straight slot cut in the upright 
stationary bar to allow the pinion to rise and 
fall and work inside and outside of the gear- 
ing of the wheel. The slot cut in the face of 
the mangle-wheel and following its outline is 
to receive and guide the pinion-shaft and 
keep the pinion in gear. 

37. Uniform into variable rotary motion. 
The bevel-wheel or pinion to the left has 
teeth cut through the whole width of its face. 
Its teeth work with a spirally arranged series 
of studs on a conical v/heel. 

38. A means of converting rotary motion, 
by which the speed is made uniform during 
a part, and varied during another part, of the 
revolution. 

39. Sun-and-planet motion. The spur- 
gear to the right, called the planet-gear, is 
tied to the center of the other, or sun-gear, 
by an arm which preserves a constant dis- 
tance between their centers. This was used 
as a substitute for the crank in a steam en- 
gine by James Watt, after the use of the 
crank had been patented by another party. 
Each revolution of the planet-gear, which is 
rigidly attached to the connecting-rod, gives 
two to the sun-gear, which is keyed to the 
fly-wheel shaft. 



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40 and 41. Rotary converted into rotary 
motion. The teeth of these gears, being 
oblique, give a more continuous bearing 
than ordinary spur gears. 



42 and 43. Different kinds of gears for 
transmitting rotary motion from one shaft 
to another arranged obliquely thereto. 



44. A kind of gearing used to transmit 
great force and give a continuous bearing to 
the teeth. Each wheel is composed of two, 
three, or more distinct spur-gears. The 
teeth, instead of being in line, are arranged 
in steps to give a continuous bearing. This 
system is sometimes used for driving screw 
propellers, and sometimes, with a rack of 
similar character, to drive the beds of large 
iron-planing machines. 



45. Frictional grooved gearing — a com- 
paratively recent invention. The diagram 
to the right is an enlarged section, which 
can be more easily understood. 



46. Fusee chain and spring-box, being 
the prime mover in some watches, particu- 
larly of English make. The fusee to the 
right is to compensate for the loss of force 



of the spring as it uncoils itself. The chain 
is on the small diameter of the fusee when 
the watch is wound up, as the spring has 
then the greatest force. 



47. A frictional clutch-box, thrown in and 
out of gear by the lever at the bottom. 
This is used for connecting and discon- 
necting heavy machinery. The eye of the 
disk to the right has a slot which slides upon 
a long key or feather fixed on the shaft. 



48. Clutch-box. The pinion at the top 
gives a continuous rotary motion to the gear 
below, to which is attached half the clutch, 
and both turn loosely on the shaft. When 
it is desired to give motion to the shaft, the 
other part of the clutch, which slides upon a 
key or feather fixed in the shaft, is thrust 
into gear by the lever. 



49. Alternate circular motion of the hori- 
zontal shaft produces a continuous rotary 
motion of the vertical shaft, by means of 
the ratchet-wheels secured to the bevel- 
gears, the ratchet-teeth of the two wheels 
being set opposite ways, and the pawls act- 
ing in opposite directions. The bevel-gears 
and ratchet-wheels are loose on the shaft, 
and the pawls attached to arms firmly se- 
cured on the shaft. 



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50 and 51. Two kinds ot universal joints. 

52. Another kind of clutch-box. The 
disk-wheel to the right has two holes, corre- 
sponding to the studs fixed in the other 
disk ; and, being pressed against it, the 
studs enter the holes, when the two disks 
rotate together. 

53. The vertical shaft is made to drive the 
horizontal one in either direction, as may be 
desired, by means of the double-clutch and 
bevel-gears. The gears on the horizontal 
shaft are loose, and are driven in opposite 
directions by the third gear ; the double- 
clutch slides upon a key or feather fixed on 
the horizontal shaft, which is made to ro- 
tate either to the right or left, according to 
the side on which it is engaged. 

54. Mangle or star-wheel, for producing 
an alternating rotary motion. 

55. Different velocity given to two gears, 
A and C, on the same shaft, by the pinion, 
D. 

56. Used for throwing in and out of gear 
the speed-motion on lathes. On depressing 
the lever, the shaft of the large wheel is 
drawn backward by reason of the slot in 
which it slides being cut eccentrically to the 
center or fulcrum of the lever, 

57. The small pulley at the top being the 
driver, the large, internally- toothed gear and 
the concentric gear within will be driven in 



opposite directions by the bands, and at the 
same time will impart motion to the inter- 
mediate pinion at the bottom, both around 
its own center and also around the common 
center of the two concentric gears. 

58. For transmitting three different speeds 
by gearing. The lower part of the band is 
shown on a loose pulley. The next pulley 
is fixed on the main shaft, on the other end 
of which is fixed a small spur-gear. The 
next pulley is fixed on a hollow shaft run- 
ning on the main shaft, and there is se- 
cured to it a second spur-gear, larger than 
the first. The fourth and last pulley to the 
left is fixed on another hollow shaft running 
loosely on the last-named, on the other end 
of which is fixed the still larger spur-gear 
nearest to the pulley. As the band is made 
to traverse Irom one pulley to another, it 
transmits three different velocities to the 
shaft below. 

59. For transmitting two speeds by gear- 
ing. The band is shown on the loose pul- 
ley — the left-hand one of tr.e lower three. 
The middle pulley is fixed on the same shaft 
as the small pinion, and the pulley to the 
right on a hollow shaft, on the end of which 
is fixed the large spur-gear. When the band 
is on the middle pulley a slow motion is 
transmitted to the shaft below ; but when it 
is on the right-hand pulley a quick speed is 
given, proportionate to the diameter of the 
gears 



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60. For transmitting two speeds by means of 
belis. There are four pulleys on the lower shaft, 
the two outer ones being loose and the two inner 
ones fast. The band to the left is shown on its 
loose pulley, the one to the right on its fast one ; 
a slow motion is consequently transmitted to 
lower shaft. When band to the right is moved 
on to its loose pulley, and left-hand one on to its 
fast pulley, a quicker motion is transmitted. 

6 1. For transmitting two speeds, one a differ- 
ential motion. The band is shown on a loose 
pulley on lower shaft. The middle pulley is 
fast on said shaft, and has a small bevel-gear se- 
cured to its hub. Pulley on the right, which, 
like that on the left, is loose on shaft, carries, 
transversely, another bevel-gear. A third bevel- 
gear, lo.)se upon the shaft, is held by a friction- 
band which is weighted at the eiid. On moving 
band on middle pulley a simple motion is the re- 
sult, but when it is moved to right-hand pulley 
a double speed is given to shaft. The friction- 
band or curb on the third bevel-gear is to allow 
it to slip a little on a sudden change of speed. 

62. For transmitting two speeds, one of which 
is a different and variaWe motion. This is very 
similar to the last, except in the third bevel-gear 
being attached to a fourth pulley, at the right of 
the other three, and driven by a band from a 
small pulley on shaft above. When left-hand 
belt is on the pulley carrying the middle bevel- 
gear, and pulley at the right turns in the same 
direction, the amount of rotation of the third 
bevel-gear must be deducted from the double 
speed which the shaft would have if this gear 
was at rest. If, on the contrary, the right-hand 
belt be crossed so as to turn the pulley in an op- 
posite direction, that amount must be added. 

63. Jumping or intermittent rotary motion, 
used for meters and revolution-counters. The 
drop and attached pawl, carried by a sprins2: at 
the left, are lifted bv pins in the disk at the right. 
Pins escape first from pawl, which drops into 
next space of the star-wheel. When pin escapes 
from drop, spring throws down suddenly the 
drop, the pin on which strikes the pawl, which, 
by its action on star-wheel, rapidly gives it a por- 

•tion of a revolution. This is repeated as each 
pin passes. 



64. Another arrangement of jumping motion. 
Motion is communicated to worm-gear, B, by 
worm or endless screw at the bottom, which is 
fixed upon the driving-shaft. Upon the shaft 
carrying the worm-gear works another hollow 
shaft, on which is fixed cam, A. A short piece 
of thJs hollow shaft is half cut away. A pin 
fixed in worm-gear shaft turns hollow shaft and 
cam, the spring which presses on cam holding 
hollow shaft back against the pin untft it arrives 
a little further than shown in the figure, when, 
the direction of the pressure being changed by 
the peculiar shape of cam, the latter falls down 
suddenly, independently of worm-wheel, and re- 
mains at rest till the pin overtakes it, when the 
same action is repeated. 

65. The left-hand disk or wheel, C, is the driv- 
ing-wheel, upon which is fixed the tappet, A. 
The other disk or wheel, D, has a series of equi- 
distant studs projecting from its face. Every ro- 
tation of the tappet acting upon one of the studs 
in the wheel, D, causes the latter wheel to move 
the distance of one stud. In order that this may 
not be exceeded, a lever-like stop is arranged 
on a fixed center. This stop operates in a notch 
cut in wheel, C, and at the instant tappet. A, 
strikes a stud, said notch faces the lever. As 
wheel, D, rotates, the end between studs is thrust 
out, and the other extremity enters the notch ; 
but immediately on the tappet leaving stud, the 
lever is again forced up in front of next stud, and 
is there held by periphery of C pressing on its 
other end. 

66. A modification of 64 ; a weight, D, attached 
to an arm secured in the shaft of the worm-gear, 
being used instead of spring and cam. 

67. Another modification of 64 ; a weight or 
tumbler, E, secured on the hollow sliaft, being 
used instead of spring and cam, and operating 
in combination with pin, C, in the shaft of 
worm-gear. 

68. The single tooth, A, of the driving-wheel, 
B, acts in the notches of the wheel, C, and turns 
the latter the distance of one notch in every 
revolution of C. No stop is necessary in this 
movement, as the driving-wheel, B. serves as a 
lock by fitting into the hollows cut in the cir- 
cumference of the wheel, C, between its notches. 



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69. B, a small wheel with one tooth, is 
the driver, and the circumference entering 
between the teeth of the wheel. A, serves as 
a lock or stop while the tooth of the small 
wheel is out of operation. 



70. The driving-wheel, C, has a rim, shown 
in dotted outline, the exterior of which serves 
as a bearing and stop for the studs on the 
other wheel, A, when the tappet, B, is out 
of contact with the studs. An opening in 
this rim serves to allow one stud to pass in 
and another to pass out. The tappet is op- 
posite tiie middle of this opening. 



71. The inner circumference (shown by 
dotted lines) of the rim of the driving-wheel, 
B, serves as a lock against which two of the 
studs in the wheel, C, rest until the tappet, 
A, striking one of the studs, the next one 
below passes out from the guard-rim through 
the lov.er notch, and another stud enters the 
rim through the upper notch. 

72. Is a tilt-hammer motion, the revolu- 
tion of the cam or wiper-wheel, B, lifting 
the hammer, A, four times in each revolu- 
tion. 



y^. To the driving-wheel, D, is secured a 
bent spring, B ; another spring, C, is at- 



tached to a fixed support. As the wheel, 
D, revolves, the spring, B, passes under the 
strong spring, C, whi^h presses it into* a 
tooth oi the ratchet-wheel. A, which is thus 
made to rotate. The catch-spring, B, being 
released on its escape from the strong 
spring, C, allows the wheel, A, to remain 
at rest till D has made another revolution. 
The spring, C, serves as a stop. 

74. A uniform intermittent rotary motion 
in opposite directions is given to the bevel- 
gears, A and B, by means of the mutilated 
bevel-gear, C. 

75, Reciprocating rectilinear motion of 
the rod, C, transmits an intermittent circu- 
lar motion to the wheel. A, by means of the 
pawl, B, at the end of the vibrating-bar, D. 

y6. Is another contrivance for registering 
or counting revolutions. A tappet, B, sup- 
ported on the fixed pivot, C, is struck at 
every revolution of the large wheel (partly 
represented) by a stud, D, attached to the 
said wheel. Thi'- causes the end of the tap- 
pet next the ratchet-wheel. A, to be lifted, 
and to turn the wheel the distance of one 
tooth. The tappet returns by its own weight 
to its original position after the stud, D, has 
passed, the end being jointed to permit it 
to pass the teeth of the ratchet-wheel. 



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TJ. The vibration of the lever,. C, on the 
center or fulcrum, A, produces a rotary ! 
movement of the wheel, B, by means of the 
two pawls, which act alternately. This is 
almost a continuous movement. 

78. A modification of 77. 

79. Reciprocating rectilinear motion of 
the rod, B, produces a nearly continuous 
rotary movement of the ratchet-faced wheel, 
A, by the pawls attached to the extremities 
of the vibrating radial arms, C, C. 

80. Rectilinear motion is imparted to the 
slotted bar, A, by the vibration of the lever, | 
C, through the agency of the two ^hooked \ 
pawls, which drop alternately into the teeth 
of the slotted rack-bar, A. 



8r. Alternate rectilinear motion is given 
to the rack-rod, B, by the continuous revo- 
lution of the mutilated spur-gear. A, the 
spiral spring, C, forcing the rod back to its 
original position on the teeth of the gear. A, 
quitting the rack. 

82. On motion being given to the two 
treadles, D, a nearly continuous motion is 
imparted, through the vibrating arms, B, and 
their attached pawls, to the ratchet-wheel, A. 
A chain or strap attached to each treadle 
passes over the pulley, C, and as one treadle 
is ^depressed the other is raised. 



83. A nearly continuous rotary motion 
is fi^iven to the wheel, D, by two ratchet- 
toothed arcs, C, one operating on each side 
of the ratchet-wheel, D. These arcs (o^ly 
one of which is shown) are fast on^the same 
rock-shaft, B, and have their teeth set op- 
posite ways. The rock-shaft :5 worked by 
giving a reciprocating rectilinear motion to 
the rod, A. The arcs should have springs 
applied to them, so that each may be capable 
of rising to allow its teeth to slide over those 
of the wheel in moving one way. 

84. The double rack-frame, B, is sus- 
pended from the rod, A. Continuous rotary 
motion is given to the cam, D. When the 
shaft of the cam is midway between the two 
racks, the cam acts upon neither of them ; 
but by raising or lowering the rod, A, either 
the lower or upper rack is brought within 
range of the cam, and the rack-frame moved 
to the left or right. This movement has 
been used in connection with the governor 
of an engine, the rod, A, being connected 
with the governor, and the rack-frame with 
the throttle or regulating valve. 

85. Intermittent alternating rectilinear mo- 
tion is given to the rod, A, \,y the continu- 
ous rotation of the shaft carrying the two 
cams or wipers, which act upon the projec- 
tion, B, of the rod, and thereby lift it. The 
rod drops by its own weight. Used for ore- 
stampers or pulverizers, and for hammers. 



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86. A method of working a reciprocating j 
pump by rotary motion. A rope, carrying ; 
the pump-rod, is attached to the wheel, A, | 
which runs' loosely upon the shaft. The 
shaft carries a cam, C, and has a continuous 
rotary motion. At every revolution the cam 
seizes the hooked catch, B, attached to the 
wheel, and drags it round, together with the 
wheel, and raises the rope until, on the ex- 
tremity of the catch striking the stationary 
stop above, the catch is released, and the 
wheel is returned by the weight of the pump- 
bucket. 

87. A contrivance for a self-reversing mo- 
tion. The bevel-gear between the gears, B 
and C, is the driver. The gears, B and C, 
run loose upon the shaft, consequently mo- 
tion is only communicated when one or other 
of them is engaged with the clutch-box, D, 
which slides on a feather on the shaft and is 
shown in gear with C. The wheel, E, at the 
right, is driven by bevel-gearing from the 
shaft on which the ^ears, B, C, and clutch 
are placed, and is about to strike the bell- 
crank, G, and produce such a movement 
thereof as will cause the connecting-rod to 
carry the weighted lever, F, beyond a per- 
pendicular position, when the said lever will 
fall over suddenly to the left, and carry the 
clutch into r^ear with B, thereby reversing 
the motion of the shaft, until the stud jn the 
wheel, E, coming round in the contrary di- 
rection, brings the weighted lever back past 



the perpendicular position, and thereby again 
causes it to reverse the motion. 

88. Continuous rotary converted into in- 
termittent rotary motion. The disk-wheel, 
B, carrying the stops, C, D, turns on a 
center eccentric to the cam, A. On con- 
tinuous rotary motion being given to the 
cam. A, mtermittent .rotary motion is im- 
parted to the wheel, B. The stops free them- 
selves from the offset of the cam aj: every half- 
revolution, the wheel, B, remaining at rest 
until the cam has completed its revolution, 
when the same motion is repeated. 

89. An eccentric generally used on the 
crank-shaft for communicating the recipro- 
cating rectilinear motion to the valves of 
steam engines, and sometimes used for 
pumping. 

90. A modification of the above ; an 
elongated yoke being substituted for the 
circular strap, to obviate the necessity for 
any vibrating motion of the rod which works 
in fixed guides. 

91. Triangular eccentric, giving an inter- 
mittent reciprocating rectilinear motion, used 
in France for the valve motion of steam 
engines. 

92. Ordinary crank motion. 



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93. Crank motion, with the crank- wrist 
working in a slotted yoke, thereby dispens- 
ing with the oscillating connecting-rod or 
pitman. 

94. Variable crank, two circular plates re- 
volving on the same center. In one a spiral 
groove is cut ; in the other a series of slots 
radiating from the center. On turning one 
of these plates around its center, the bolt 
shown near the bottom of the figure, and 
which passes through the spiral groove and 
radial slots, is caused to move toward or 
from the center of the plates. 



95. On rotating the upright shaft, recipro- 
cating rectilinear motion is imparted by the 
oblique disk to the upright rod resting upon 
its surface. 



96. A heart-cam. Uniform traversing mo- 
tion is imparted to the horizontal bar by the 
rotation of the heart-shaped cam. The 
dotted lines show the mode of striking out 
the curve of the cam. The length of traverse 
is divided into any number of parts ; and 
from the center a series of concentric circles 



are described through these points. The 
outside circle is then divided into double 
the number of these divisions, and lines 
drawn to the center. The curve is then 
drawn through the intersections of the con- 
centric circles and the radiating lines. 



97. This is a heart-cam, similar to 96, ex- 
cept that it is grooved. 



98. Irregular vibrating motion is produced 
by the rotation of the circular disk, in which 
is fixed a crank-pin working in an endless 
groove cut in the vibrating arm. 



99. Spiral guide attached to the face of a 
disk ; used for the feed-motion of a drilling 
machine. 



100. Quick return crank motion, applicable 
to shaping machines. 

10 1. Rectilinear motion of horizontal bar, 
by means of vibrating slotted bar hung from 
the top. 



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102. Common screw bolt and nut ; rec- \ in every revolution. A point inserted in the 
tilinear motion obtained from circular mo- [ groove will traverse the cylinder from end 
tion. to end. 



103. Rectilinear motion of slide produced 
by the rotation of screw. 

104. In this, rotary motion is imparted to 
the wheel by the rotation of the screw, or 
rectiUnear motion of the slide by the rota- 
tion of the wheel. Used in screw-cutting 
and slide-lathes. 

105. Screw stamping-press. Rectilinear 
motion from circular motion. 

106 and 107. Uniform reciprocating rec- 
tilinear motion, produced by rotary motion 
of grooved cams. 

108. Uniform reciprocating rectilinear mo- 
tion from uniform rotary motion of a cylin- 
der, in which are cut reverse threads or 
grooves, which necessarily intersect twice 



109. The rotation of thj screw at the left- 
hand side produces a uniform rectilinear 
movement of a cutter which cuts another 
screw thread. The pitch of the screw to be 
cut may be varied by changing the sizes of 
the wheels at the end of the frame. 



no. Uniform circular into uniform recti- 
linear motion ; used in spooUng-frames for 
leading or guiding the thread on to the 
spools. The roller is divided into two parts, 
each having a fine screw thread cut upon it, 
one a right and the other a left hand screw. 
The spindle parallel with the roller has arms 
which carry two half-nuts, fitted to the 
screws, one over and the other under the 
roller. When one half-nut is in, the other 
is out of gear. By pressing the lever to the 
right or left, the rod is made to traverse in 
either direction. 



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111. Micrometer screw. Great power can 
be obtained by /this device. The threads 
are made of different pitch and run in differ- 
ent directions, consequently a die or nut 
fitted to the inner and smaller screw would 
traverse only the length of the difference be- 
tween the pitches for every revolution of the 
outside hollow screw in a nut. 

112. Persian drill. The stock of the drill 
has a very quick thread cut upon it and re- 
volves freely, supported by the head at the 
top, which rests against the body. The but- 
ton or nut shown on the middle of the screw 
is held firm in the hand, and pulled quickly 
up and down the stock, thus causing it to 
revolve to the right and left alternately. 

113. Circular into rectilinear motion, or 
vice versa^ by means of rack and pinion. 

114. Uniform circular motion into reci- 
procating rectilinear motion, by means of 
mutilated pinion, which drives alternately 
the top and bottom rack. 

rt5. Rotary motion of the toothed wheels 
produces rectilinear motion of the double 
rack and gives equal force and velocity to 
each side, both wheels being of .equal size. 

1 16. A substitute for the crank. Recip- 
rocating rectilinear motion of the frame car- 
rying the double rack produces a uniform 
rotary motion of the pinion-shaft. A sepa- ' 



rate pinion is used for each rack, th6 two 
racks being in different planes. Both pinions 
are loose on the shaft. A ratchet-wheel is 
fast on the shaft outside of each pinion, and 
a pawl attached to the pinion to engage in 
it, one ratchet-wheel having its teeth set in 
one direction and the other having its teeth 
set in the opposite direction. When the 
racks move one way, one pinion turns the 
shaft by means of its pawl and ratchet ; and 
when the racks move the opposite way, the 
other pinion acts in the same way, one pinion 
always turning loosely on the shaft 

117. A cam acting between two friction- 
rollers 'in a yoke. Has been used to give 
the movement to the valve of a steam en- 
gine. 

118. A mode of doubling the length of 
stroke of a piston-rod, or the throw of a 
crank. A pinion revolving on a spindle at- 
tached to the connecting-rod or pitman is in 
gear with a fixed rack. Another rack carried 
by a guide-rod above, and in gear with the 
opposite side of the pinion, is free to tra- 
verse backward and forward. Now, as the 
connecting-rod communicates to the pinion 
the full length of stroke, it would cause the 
top rack to traverse the same distance, if the 
bottom rack was alike movable ; but as the 
latter is fixed, the pinion is made to rotate, 
and consequently the top rack travels double 
the distance. 



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119. Reciprocating rectilinear motion of 
the bar carrying the oblong endless rack, 
produced by the uniform rotary motion of 
the pinion working alternately above and 
below the rack. The shaft of the pinion 
moves up and down in, and is guided by, the 
slotted bar. 



120. Each jaw is attached to one of the 
two segments, one of which has teeth out- 
side and the other teeth inside. On turning 
the shaft carrying the two pinions, one of 
which gears with one and the other with the 
other ^segment, the jaws are brought to- 
gether ^ith great force. 

121. Alternating rectilinear motion of the 
rod attached to the disk-wheel produces an 
intermittent rotary motion of the cog-wheel 
by means of the click attached to the disk- 
wheel. This motion, which is reversible by 
throwing over the cHck, is used for the feed 
of planing machines and other tools. 



the double rack gives a continuous rotary 
motion to the center gear. The teeth on 
the rack act upon those of the two semi-cir- 
cular toothed sectors, and the spur-gears at- 
tached to the sectors operate upon the cen- 
ter gear. The two stops on the rack shown 
by dotted lines are caught by the curved 
piece on the center gear, and lead the 
toothed sectors alternately into gear with 
the double rack. 



T24. Fiddle drill. Reciprocating recti- 
linear motion of the bow, the string of 
which passes around the pulley on the spin- 
dle carrying the drill, prodticing alternating 
rotary motion of the drill. 



125. A modification of the motion shown 
in .122, but of a more complex character. 



126. A bell- crank lever, used for changing 
the direction of any force. 



122. The rotation of the two spur-gears, 
with crank-wrists attached, produces a va- '^7. Motion used in air-pumps. On vi- 
riabie alternating traverse of the horizontal Crating the lever fixed on the same shaft 
1 I with the spur-gear, reciprocating rectilinear 

j motion is imparted to the racks on each 
. side, which are attached to the pistons of 



123. Intended as a substitute for the 
crank. Reciprocating rectilinear motion of 



two pumps, one rack always ascending while 
the other is descending. 



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128. A continuous rotary mcJtion of the 
shaft carrying the three wipers produces a 
reciprocating rectilinear motion of the rec- 
tangular frame. The shaft must revolve in 
the direction of the arrow for the parts to be 
in the position represented. 

129. Chinese windlass. This embraces 
the same principles as the micrometer screw 
III. The movement of the pulley in 
every revolution of the windlass is equal to 
half the difference between the larger and 
smaller circumferences of the windlass bar- 
rel. 

130. Shears for cutting iron plates, etc. 
The jaws are opened by the weight of the 
long arm of the upper one, and closed by the 

I rotation of the cam. 



bars move toward perpendicular positions 
and force the lower disk down. The top 
disk must be firmly secured in a stationary 
position, except as to its revolution. 

133. A simple press motion is given 
through the hand-crank on the pinion-shaft ; 
the pinion comm>inicating motion to the 
toothed sector, which acts upon the platen, 
by means of the rod which connects it there- 
with. 

134. * Uniform circular motion into recti- 
linear by means of a rope or band, which is 
wound once or more times around the drum. 

135. Modification of the triangular eccen- 
tric 91, used on the steam engine in the 
Paris Mint. The circular disk behind car- 
ries the triangular tappet, which communi- 
cates an alternate rectilinear motion to the 
valve-rod. The valve is at rest at the com- 
pletion of each stroke for an instant, and is 
pushed quickly across the steam-ports to 
the end of the next. 



131. On rotating the disk carrying the 
crank-pin working in the slotted arm, reci- ! 
procating rectilinear motion is imparted to ^ 
the rack at the bottom by the vibration of j 
the toothed sector. • 1 

132. This is a motion which has been 
used in presses to produce the necessary ! 
pressure upon the platen. Horizontal mo- 
tion is given to the arm of the lever which ' 
turns the upper disk. Between the top and ' 
bottom disks are two bars which enter j turning the wheel, alternate rectilinear mo- 
holes in the disks. These bars are in ob- tion is communicated to the rod. The char- 



136. A cam-wheel — of which a side view 

! is shown — has its rim formed into teeth, or 

' made of any profile form desired. The rod 

to the right is made to press constantly 

' against the teeth or edge of the rim. On 



j lique positions, as shown in .the drawing, 
when the press is not in operation ; but 
when the top disk is made to rotate, the 



acter of this motion may be varied by alter- 
ing the shape of the teeth or profile of the 
edge of the rim of the wheel. 



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137- Expansion eccentric used in France 
to work the slide-valve of a steam engine. 
The eccentric is fixed on the crank-shaft, 
and communicates motion to the forked vi- 
brating arm to the bottom of which the 
valve-rod is attached. 

138. On turning the cam at the bottom a 
variable alternating rectilinear motion is im- 
parted to the rod resting on it. 

139. The internal rack, carried by the 
rectangular frame, is free to slide up and. 
down within it for a certain distance, so that 
the pinion can gear with either side of the 
rack. Continuous circular motion of the 
pinion is made to produce reciprocating 
rectilinear motion of rectangular frame. 

140. The to<Jgle-joint arranged for a 
punching machine. Lever at the right is 
made to operate upon the j6int of the toggle 
by means of the horizontal connecting-link. 

141. Endless-band saw. Continuous ro- 
tary motion of the pulleys is made to pro- 
duce continuous rectilinear motion of the 
straight parts of the saw. 

142. Movement used for varying the 
length of the traversing guide-bar which, in 
silk machiner)/, guides the silk on to spools 
or bobbins. The spur-gear, turning freely 
on its center, is carried round by the larger 
circular disk, which turns on a fixed central 
stud, which has a pinion fast on its end. 
Upon tlie spur-gear is bolted a small crank, 
to which is jointed a connecting-rod attached 
to traversing guide-bar. On turning the 
disk, the spur-gear is made to rotate partly 
upon its center by means of the fixed pinion, 
and consequently brings crank nearer to 
center of disk. If the rotation of disk was 



continued, the spur-gear would make an en- 
tire revolution. During half a revolution 
i the traverse would have been shortened a 
I certain amount at every revolution of disk, 
j according to the size of spur-gear ; and dur- 
1 ing the other half it would have gradually 
iengtiiened in the same ratio. 

143. Circular motion into alternate rec- 
' tilinear motion. Motion is transmitted 
tlirough pulley at the left upon the worm- 
shaft. Worm slides upon shaft, but is made 
to turn with it by means of a groove cut in 
shaft, and a key in hub of worm. Worm is 
carried by a small traversing-frame, which 
slides upon a horizontal bar of the fixed 
frame, and the traversing-frame also carries 
the toothed wheel into which the worm gears. 
One end of a connecting-rod is attached 
to fixed frame at the riglit and the other 
end to a v/rist secured in toothed wheel. On 
turning worm-shaft, rotary motion is trans- 
mitted by worm to wheel, which, as it re- 
v.olves, is forced by connecting-rod to make 
an alternating traverse motion. 

I 144. A system of crossed levers, termed 
• " Lazy Tongs." A short alternating recti- 
I linear motion of rod at the right will give a 
i similar but much greater motion to rod at 
' the left. It is frequently used in children's 
toys. It has been applied in France to a 
^ machine for raising sunken vessels ; also 
; applied to ships' pumps, three-quarters pf a 
I century ago. 

145. Reciprocating curvilinear motion of 

the beam gives a continuous rotary motion 

to the crank and fly-wheel. The small 

standard at the left, to which is attached one 

' end of the lever with which the beam is con- 

I nected by the connecting-rod, has a horizon- 

! tal reciprocating rectilinear movement. 



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146. Continuous rotary motion of the disk 
produces reciprocating rectilinear motion of 
the yoke-bar, by means of the wrist or crank- 
pin on the disk working in the groove of the 
yoke. The groove may be so shaped as to 
obtain a uniform reciprocating rectilinear 
motion. 

147. Steam engine governor. The oper- 
ation is as follows : — On engine starting 
the spindle revolves and carries round the 
cross-head to which fans are attached, and 
on which are also fitted two friction-rollers 
which bear on two circular inclined planes 
attached securely to the center shaft, the 
cross-head being loose on the shaft. The 
cross-head is made heavy, or has a ball or 
other weight attached, and is driven by the 
circular inclined planes. As the speed of 
the center shaft increases, the resistance of 
the air to the wings tends to retard the rota- 
tion of the cross-head; the friction-rollers 
therefore run up the inclined planes and 
raise the cross-head, to the upper part of 
which is connected a lever operating upon 
the regulating- valve of the engine. 

148. Continuous circular motion of the 
spur-gears produces alternate circular mo- 
tion of the crank attached to the larger gear. 

149. Uniform circular converted, by the 
cams acting upon the levers, into alternating 
rectilinear motions of the attached rods. 

150. A valve motion for working steam 
expansively. The series of cams of varying 
throw are movable lengthwise of the shaft so 



that either may be made to act upon the 
lever to which the valve-rod is connected. 
A greater or less movement of the valve is 
produced, according as a cam of greater or 
less throw is opposite the lever. 

151. Continuous circular into continuous 
but much slower rectilinear motion. The 
worm on the upper shaft, acting on the 
tootheci wheel on the screw-shaft, causes the 
right and left hand screw-threads to move 
the nuts upon them toward or from each 
other according to the direction of rotation. 

152. An ellipsograph. Th.e traverse bar 
(shown in an oblique position) carries two 
studs which slide in the grooves of the cross- 
piece. By turning the traverse bar an at- 
tached pencil is made to describe an ellipse 
by the rectilinear movement of the studs in 
the grooves. 

153. Circular motion into alternating rec- 
tilinear motion. The studs on the rotating 
disk strike the projection on the under side 
of the horizontal bar, moving it one direc- 
tion. The return motion is given by means 
of the bell-crank or elbow-lever, one arm of 
which is operated upon by the next stud, 
and the other strikes the stud on the front 
of the horizontal bar. 

154. Circular motion into alternating rec- 
tilinear motion, by the action of the studs on 
the rotary disk upon one end of the bell- 
crank, the other end of which has attached 
to it a weighted cord passing over a pulley. 



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155. Reciprocating rectilinear motion 
into intermittent circular motion by means 
of the pawl attached to the elbow-lever, and 
operating in the toothed wheel. Motion is 
given to the wheel in either direction accord- 
ing to the side on which the pawl works. 
This is used in giving the feed-motion to 
planing machines and other tools. 

156. Circular motion into variable alter- 
nating rectilinear motion, by the wrist or 
crank-pin on the rotating disk working in 
the slot of the bell-crank or elbow-lever. 

157. A modification of the movement last 
described ; a connecting-rod being substi- 
tuted for the slot in the bell-crank. 

158. Reciprocating curvilinear motion of 
the treadle gives a circular motion to the 
disk. A crank may be substituted for the 
disk. 

1 59. A modification of 158, a cord and pul- 
ley being substituted for the connecting rod. 

160. Alternating curvilinear motion into 
alternating circular. When the treadle has 
been depressed, the spring at the top ele- 
vates it for the next stroke ; the connecting 
band passes once round the pulley, to which 
it gives motion. 

161. Centrifugal governor for steam en- 
gines. The central spindle and attached arms 
and balls are driven firom the engine by the 
bevel-gears at the top, and the balls fly out 
from the center by centrifugal force. If the 
speed of the engine increases, the balls fly 
out further from the center, and so raise the 
slide at the bottom and thereby reduce the 
opening of the regulating-valve which is 
connected with said slide. A diminution of 
speed produces an opposite effect. 

162. Water-wheel governor acting on the 
same principle as 161, but by different 
means. The governor is driven by the top 



horizontal shaft and bevel-gears, and the 
lower gears control the rise and fall of the 
shuttle or gate over or through which the 
water flows to the .wheel. The action is as 
follows : — The two bevel-gears on the lower 
part of the center spindle, which are fur- 
nished with studs, are fitted loosely to the 
said spindle and remain at rest so long as 
the governor has a proper velocity ; but im- 
mediately that the velocity increases, the 
balls, flymg further out, cfraw up the pin 
which IS attached to a loose sleeve which 
slides up and down the spindle, and this 
pin, coming in contact with the stud on the 
upper bevel gear, causes that gear to rotate 
with the spindle and to give motion to the 
lower horizontal shaft in such a direction as 
to make it raise the shuttle or gate, and so 
reduce the quan tity of water passing to the 
wheel. On the contrary, if the speed of the 
governor decreases below that required, the 
pin falls and gives motion to the lower be- 
vel-gear, which drives the horizontal shaft in 
the opposite direction and produces a con- 
trary effect. 

163. Another arraneement for a water- 
wheel governor. In this the governor con- 
trols the shuttle or gate by means of the 
cranked lever, which acts on the strap or 
belt in the following manner : — The belt 
runs on one of three pulleys, the middle one 
of which is loose on the governor spindle 
and the upper and lower ones fast. When 
the governor is running at the proper speed 
the belt is on the loose pulley, as shown ; but 
when the speed increases the belt is thrown 
on the lower pulley, and thereby caused to 
act upon suitable gearing for raising the gate 
or shuttle and decreasing the supply of wa- 
ter. A reduction of the speed of the gover- 
nor brings the belt on the upper pulley, 
which acts upon gearing for producing an 
opposite effect on the shuttie or gate. 



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164. A knee-lever, differing slightly from 
the toggle-joint shown in 40. It is often 
used for presses and stamps, as a great 
force can be obtained by it. The action 
is by raising or lowering the horizontal 
lever. 

165. Circular into rect jnear motion. The 
waved-wheel or cam on the uppght shaft 
communicates a rectilinear motion to the 
upright bar through the oscillating rod. 

166. The rotation of the disk carrying the 
crank pin gives a to-and-fro motion to the 
connecting-rod, and the slot allows the rod 
to remain at rest at the termination of each 
stroke ; it has been used in a brick-press, 
in which the connecting-rod draws a mold 
backward and forward, and permits it to rest 
at the termination of each stroke, that the 
clay may be deposited in it and the brick 
extracted. 

167. A drum or cylinder having an endless 
spiral groove extending all around it ; one 
half of the groove having its pitch in one, 
and the other half its pitch in the opposite 
direction. A stud on a reciprocating regti- 
linearly moving rod works in the groove, and 
so converts reciprocating into rotary motion. 
This has been used as a substitute for the 
crank in a steam engine. 

168. The slotted crank at the left hand of 
the figure is on the main shaft of an engine, 
and the pitman which connects it with the 
reciprocating moving power is furnished 
with a pin which works in the slot of the 



crank. Intermediate between the first crank 
and the moving power is a shaft carrying a 
second crank, of an invariable radius, con- 
nected with the same pitman. While the 
first crank moves in a circular orbit, the pin 
at the end of the pitman is compelled to 
move in an elliptical orbit, thereby increas- 
ing the leverage of the main crank at those 
points which are most favorable for the 
transmission of power. 

169. A modification of 168, in which a 
link is used to connect the pitman with the 
main crank, thereby dispensing with the slot 
in the said crank. 

170. Another form of steam engine gov- 
ernor. Instead of the arms being connected 
with a slide working on a spindle, they cross 
each other and are elongated upward beyond 
the top thereof and connected with the valve- 
rod by two short links. 

171. Valve motion and reversing gear 
used in oscillating marine engines. The 
two eccentric rods give an oscillating mo- 
tion to the slotted link which works the 
curved slide over the trunnion. Within the 
slot in the curved slide is a pin attached to 
the arm of a rock-shaft which gives motion 
to the valve. The curve of the slot in the 
slide is an arc of a circle described from the 
center of the trunnion, and as it moves with 
the cylinder it does not interfere with the 
stroke of the valve. The two eccentrics 
and link are like those of the link motion 
used in locomotives. 



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172. A mode of obtaining an egg-shaped 
elliptical movement. 

173. A movement used in silk machinery 
for the same purpose as that described in 
142. On the back of a disk or bevel-gear 
is secured a screw with a tappet-wheel 
at one extremity. On each revolution of 
the disk the tappet-wheel comes in contact 
with a pin or tappet, and thus receives an in- 
termittent rotary movement. A wrist secured 
to a nut on the screw enters and works in a 
slotted bar at the end of the rod which 
guides the silk on the bobbins. Each revo- 
lution of the disk varies^ the length of stroke 
of the guide-rod, as the tappet-wheel on the 
end of the screw turns the screw with it, 
and the position of the nut on the screw is 
therefore changed. 

174. Carpenters' bench-clamp. By push- 
ing the clamp between the jaws they are 
made to turn on the screws and clamp the 
sides 

175. A means of giving one complete re- 
volution to the crank of an engine to each 
stroke of the piston. 

176 and 177. Contrivance for uncoupling 
engines. The wrist which is fixed on one 
arm of the crank (not shown) will communi- 
cate motion to the arm of the crank which 
is represented, when the ring on the lat- 
ter has its slot in the position shown in 
176. But when the ring is turned to bring 
the slot in the position shown in 177, 
the wrist passes through the slot without 



turning the crank to which said ring is at- 
tached. 

178. Contrivance for varying the speed of 
the slide carrying the cutting tool in slotting 
and shaping machines, etc. The driving- 
shaft works through an opening in a fixed 
disk, in which is a circular slot. At the end 
of the said shaft is a slotted crank. A slide 
fits in the slot of the crank and in the circu- 
lar slot ; and to the outward extremity of 
this slide is attached the connecting-rod 
which works the slide carrying the cutting 
tool. When the driving-shaft rotates the 
crank is carried round, and the slide carry- 
ing the end of the connecting-rod is guided 
by the circular slot, which is placed eccen- 
trically to the shaft ; therefore, as the slide 
approaches the bottom, the length of the 
crank is shortened and the speed of the con- 
necting-rod is diminished. 

179. Reversing-gear for a single engine. 
On raising the eccentric-rod the valve-spin- 
dle is released. The engine can then be re- 
versed by working the upright lever, after 
which the eccentric-rod is let down again. 
The eccentric in this case is loose upon the 
shaft and driven by a projection on the shaft 
acting upon a nearly semi-circular projection 
on the side of the eccentric, which permits 
the eccentric to turn half-way round on the 
shaft on reversing the valves. 

180. This only differs from 174 in be- 
ing composed of a single pivoted clamp 
operating in connection with a fixed side- 
piece. 



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i8i and 182. Diagonal catch or hand-gear 
used in large blowing and pumping engines. 
In 181 the lower steam-valve and upper 
eduction-valve are open, while the upper 
steam-valve and lower eduction-valve are 
shut ; consequently the piston will be as- 
cending. In the ascent of the piston-rod 
the lower handle will be struck by the pro- 
jecting tappet, and, being- raised, will be- 
come engaged by the catch and shut the 
upper eduction and lower steam valves ; at 
the same time, the upper handle being dis- 
engaged from the catch, the back weight will 
pull the handle up and open the upper steam 
and lower eduction valves, when the pis- 
ton will consequently -descend. 182 repre- 
sents the position of the catchers and han- 
dles when the piston is at the top of the 
cylinder. In going down, the tappet of the 
piston-rod strikes the upper handle and 
throws the catches and handles to the po- 
sition shown in 181. ^ 

183 and 184 represent a modification of 
181 and 182, the diagonal catches being su- 
perseded by two quadrants. 

185. Link-motion valve-gear of a locomo- 
tive. Two eccentrics are used for one valve, 
one for the forward and the other for the 
backward movement of the engine. The 
extremities of the eccentric-rods are jointed 
to a curved slotted bar, or, as it is termed, a 
link^ which can be raised or lowered by an 
arrangement of levers terminating in a han- 
dle as shown. In the slot of the link is a 



slide and pin connected with an arrangement 
of levers terminating at the valve-stem. The 
link, in moving with the action of the eccen- 
trics, carries with it the slide, and thence 
motion is communicated to the valve. Sup- 
pose the link raised so that the slide is in 
the middle, then the link will oscillate on 
the pin of the slide, and consequently the 
valve will be at rest. If the link is moved 
so that the shde is at one of its extremities, 
the whole throw of the eccentric connected 
with that extremity will be given to it, and 
the valve and steam-ports will be opened to 
the full, and it will only be toward the end 
of the stroke that they will be totally shut, 
consequently the steam will have been ad- 
fciitted to the cylinder during almost the en- 
tire length of each stroke. But if the slide 
is between the middle and the extremity of 
the slot, as shown in the figure, it receives 
only a part of the throw of the eccentric, 
and the steam-ports will only be partially 
opened, and are quickly closed again, so 
that the admission of steam ceases some 
time before the termination of the stroke, 
and the steam is worked expansively. The 
nearer the slide is to the middle of the slot 
the greater will be the expansion, and vice 
versa, 

186. Apparatus for disengaging the eccen- 
tric-rod from the valve-gear. By pulling up 
the spring handle below until it catches in 
the notch, a, the pin is disengaged from the 
gab in the eccentric-rod. 

187 and 188. Modifications of 186. 



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189. Another modification of 186. 

190. A screw-clamp. On turning the 
handle the screw thrusts upward against the 
holder, which, operating as a lever, holds 
down the piece of wood or other material 
placed under it on the other side of its ful- 



191. Scroll-gears for obtaining a gradually 
increasing speed. 

192. A variety of what is known as the 
"mangle- wheel." One variety of this was 
illustrated by 36. In this one the speed 
varies in every part of a revolution, the 
groove, ^, d, in which the pinion-shaft is 
guided, as well as the series of teeth, being 
eccentric to the axis of the wheel. . 

193. Another kind of mangle- wheel with 
its pinion. With this as well as with that 
in the preceding figure, although the pinion 
continues to revolve in one direction, the 
mangle- wheel will make almost an entire re- 
volution in one direction and the same in an 
opposite direction ; but the revolution of the 
wheel in one direction will be slower than 
that in the other, owing to the greater radius 
of the outer circle of teeth. 

194. Another mangle- wheel. In this the 
speed is equal in both directions of motion, 



only one circle of teeth being provided on 
the wheel. With all of these mangle-wheels 
the pinion-shaft is guided and the pinion 
kept in gear by a groove in the wheel. The 
said shaft is made with a universal joint, 
which allows a portion of it to have the vi- 
bratory motion necessary to keep the pinion 
in gear. 

195. A mode of driving a pair of feed- 
rolls, the opposite surfaces of which require 
to move in the same direction. The two 
wheels are precisely similar, and both gear 
into the endless screw which is arranged be- 
tween them. The teeth of one wheel only 
are visible, those of the other being on the 
back or side which is concealed from view. 



196. The pinion, B, rotates about a fixed 
axis and gives an irregular vibratory motion 
to the arm carrying the wheel, A. 

197. What is called a " mangle-rack " A 
continuous rotation of the pinion will give a 
reciprocating motion to the square frame. 
The pinion-shaft must be free to rise and 
fall, to pass round the guides at the ends of 
the rack. This motion may be modified as 
follows : — If the square frame be fixed, and 
the pinion be fixed upon a shaft made with 
a universal joint, the end of the shaft will 
describe a line, similar to that shown in the 
drawing, around the rack. 



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198. A modification of 197. In this the 
pinion revolves, but does not rise and fall 
as in the former figure. The portion of 
the frame carrying the rack is jointed to the 
main portion of the frame by rods, so that 
when the pinion arrives at the end it lifts 
the rack by its own movement, and follows 
on the other side. 

199. Another form of mangle-rack. The 
lantern-pinion revolves continuously in one 
direction, and gives reciprocating motion to 
the square frame, which is guided by rollers 
or grooves. The pinion has only teeth in' 
less than half of its circumference, so that 
while it engages one side of the rack, the 
toothless half is directed against the other. 
The large tooth at the commencement of 
each rack is made to insure the teeth of the 
pinion being properly in gear. 

200. A mode of obtaining two different 
speeds on the same shaft from one driving- 
wheel. 

201. A continual rotation of the pinion 
(obtained through the irregular shaped gear 
at the left) gives a variable vibrating move- 



ment to the horizontal arm, and a variable 
reciprocating movement to the rod, A. 

202. Worm or endless screw and worm- 
wheel. Modification of 30, used when 
steadiness or great power is required. 

203. A regular vibrating movement of the 
curved slotted arm gives a variable vibration 
to the straight arm. 

204. An illustration of the transmission of 
rotary motion from one shaft to another, ar- 
ranged obliquely to it, by means of rolling 
contact 

205. Represents a wheel driven by a pin- 
ion of two teeth. The pinion consists in re- 
ality of two cams, which gear with two dis- 
tinct series of teeth on opposite sides of the 
wheel, the teeth of one series alternating in 
position with those of the other. 

206. A continuous circular movement of 
the ratchet-wheel, produced by the vibration 
of the lever carrying two pawls, one of which 
engages the ratchet-teeth in rising and the 
other in falling. 



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207. A modification of 195 by means of 
two worms and worm-wheels. 

208. A pin-wheel and slotted pinion, by 
which three changes of speed can be ob- 
tained. There are three circles of pins of 
equal distance on the face of the pin-wheel, 
and by shifting the slotted pinion along its 
shaft, to bring it in contact with one or the 
other of the circles of pins, a continuous ro- 
tary motion of the wheel is made to produce 
three changes of speed of the pinion, or vice 
versa. 

209. Represents a mode of obtaining mo- 
tion from rolling contact. The teeth are for 
making the motion continuous, or it would 
cease at the point of contact shown in the 
figure. The forked catch is to guide the 
teeth into proper contact. 

210. By turning the shaft carrying the 
curved slotted arm, a rectilinear motion of 
variable velocity is given to the vertical bar. 



211. A continuous rotary motion of the 
large wheel gives an intermittent rotary mo- 
tion to the pinion-shaft. The part of the 
pinion shown next the wheel is cut of the 
same curve as the plain portion of the cir- 
cumference of the wheel, and therefore 
serves as a lock while the wheel makes a 
part of a revolution, and until the pin upon 
the wheel strikes the guide-piece upon the 
pinion, when the pinion-shaft commences 
another revolution. 

212. What is called the "Geneva-stop, 
used in Swiss watches to limit the numbei 
of revolutions in winding-up ; the convex 
curved part, a^ b, of the wheel, B, serving as 
the stop. 

213. Another kind of stop for the same 
purpose. 

214 and 215. Other modifications of the 
stop, the/ operations of which will be easily 
understood by a comparison with 212. 



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2 1 6. The external an(J internal mutilated 
cog-wheels work alternately into the pinion, 
and give slow forward and quick reverse 
motion. 

217 and 218. These are parts of the same 
movement, which has been used for giving 
the roller motion. in wool-combing machines. 
The roller to which wheel, F (218), is secured 
is required to make one third a revolution 
backward, then two thirds of a revolution 
forward, when it must stop until another 
length of combed fiber is ready for delivery. 
This is accomplished by the grooved heart- 
cam, C, D, B, e (217), tne stud, A, working 
in the said groove ; from C to D it moves 
the roller backward, and from D to ^ it 
moves it forward, the motion being trans- 
mitted through the catch, G, to the notch- 
wheel, F, on the roller-shaft, H. When the 
stud, A, arrives at the point, e^ in the cam, a 
projection at the back of the wheel which 
carries the cam strikes the projecting piece 
on the catch, G, ana raises it out of the 
notch in the wheel, F, so that, while the 
stud is traveling in the cam from e to C, the 
catch is passing over the plain surface be- 
tween the twofiotches in the wheel, F, with- 
out imparting any motion ; but when stud, 
A, arrives at the part, C, the catch has 
dropped in another notch, and is again ready 
to move wheel, F, and roller as required. 

219. Variable circular motion by crown- 
wheel and pinion The crown-wheel is 
placed eccentrically to the shaft, therefore 
the relative radius changes. 

220. The two crank-shafts are parallel in 
direction, but not in line with each other. 
The revolution of either will communicate 
motion to the other with a varying velocity, 
for the wrist of one crank working in the 



slot of the other is continually changing its 
distance from the shaft of the latter. 

221. Irregular circular motion imparted to 
wheel, A. C is an elliptical spur-gear rotat- 
ing round center, D, and is the driver. B is 
a small pinion with teeth of the same pitch, 
gearing with C. The center of this pinion 
is not fixed, but is carried by an arm or 
frame which vibrates on a center. A, so that 
as C revolves the frame rises and falls to 
enable pinion to remain in gear with it, not- 
withstanding the variation in its radius of 
contact. To keep the teeth of C and B in 
gear to a proper depth, and prevent them 
Irom riding over each other, wheel, C, has 
attached to it a plate which extends beyond 
it and is furnished with a groove, gy //, of 
similar elliptical form, for the reception of a 
pin or small roller attached to the vibrating 
arm conceivtric with pinion, B. 

222. If for the eccentric wheel described 
in the last figure an ordinary spur-gear mov- 
ing on an eccentric center of irotion be sub- 
stituted, a simple link connecting the center 
of the wheel with that of the pinion with 
which it gears will maintain proper pitching 
of teeth in a more simple manner than the 
groove. 

223. An arrangement for obtaining vari- 
able circular motion. The sectors are ar- 
ranged on different planes, and the relative 
velocity changes according to the respective 
diameters of the sectors. 

224. This represents an expanding pulley. 
On turning pinion, ^ to the right or left, a 
similar motion is imparted to wheel, c, which, 
by means of curved slots cut therein, thrusts 
the studs fastened to arms of pulley outwaid 
or inward, thus augmenting or diminishing 
the size of the pulley. 



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225. Intermittent circular motion of the 
ratchet-wheel from vibratory motion of the 
arm carrying a pawl. 

226. This movement is designed to double 
the speed by gears of equal diameters and 
numbers of teeth — a result once generally 
supposed to be impossible. Six bevel-gears 
are employed. The gear on the shaft, B, is 
in gear with two others — one on the shaft, 
F, and the other on the same hollow shaft 
with C, which turns loosely on F. The gear, 
D, is carried by the frame, A, which, being 
fast on the shaft, F, is made to rotate, and 
therefore takes round D with it. E is loose 
on the shaft, F, and gears with D. Now, sup- 
pose the two gears on the hollow shaft, C, 
were removed and D prevented from turning 
on its axis ; one revolution given to the gear 
on B would cause the frame, A, also to re- 
ceive one revolution, and as this frame car- 
ries with it the gear, D, gearing with E, one 
revolution would be imparted to E ; but if 
the gears on the hollow shaft, C, were re- 
placed, D would receive also a revolution on 
its axis during the one revolution of B, and 
thus would produce two revolutions of E. 

227. Represents a chain and chain pulley. 



The links being in different planes, spaces 
are left between them for the teeth of the 
pulley to enter. 

228. Another kind of chain and pulley. 

229. Another variety. 

230. Circular motion into ditto. The con- 
necting-rods are so arranged that when one 
pair of connected links is over the dead 
point, or at the extremity of its stroke, the 
other is at right angles ; continuous motion 
is thus insured without a fly-wheel. 

231. Drag-link motion. Circular motion 
is transmitted from one crank to the other. 

232. Intermittent circular motion is im- 
parted to the toothed wheel by vibrating the 
arm, B. When the arm, B, is lifted, the 
pawl, C, is raised from between the teeth of 
the wheel, and, traveling backward over 
the circumference, again drops between two 
teeth on lowering the arm, and draws with 
it the wheel. 

233. Shows two different kinds of stops 
for a lantern-wheel. 



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234. Represents a verge escapement. On 
oscillating the spindle, S, the crown-wheel 
has an intermittent- rotary motion. 

235. The oscillation of the tappet-arm pro- 
duces an intermittent rotary motion of the 
ratchet-wheel. The small spring at the bot- 
tom of the tappet-arm keeps the tappet in 
the position shown in the drawing as the 
arm rises, yet allows it to pass the teeth on 
the return motion. 



236. A nearly continuous circular motion 
is imparted to the ratchet-wheel on vibrating 
the lever, a, to which are attached the two 
pawls, b and c, 

237. A reciprocating circular motion of 
the top arm makes its attached pawl pro- 
duce an intermittent circular motion of the 
crown-ratchet or rag-wheel. 

238. An escapement. D is the escape- 



wheel, and C and B the pallets. A is the 
axis of the pallets. 



239. An arrangement of stops for a spur- 
gear. 



240. Represents varieties of stops for a 
ratchet-wheel. 



241. Intermittent circular motion is im- 
parted to the wheel, A, by the continuous 
circular motion of the smaller wheel with 
one tooth. 



242. A brake used in cranes and hoisting 
machines. By pulling down the end of the 
lever, the ends of the brake-strap are drawn 
toward each other, and the strap tightened 
on the brake-wheel. 



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243. Represents a mode of transmitting 
power from a horizontal shaft to two vertical 
ones by means of pulleys and a band. 

244. A dynamometer, or instrument used 
for ascertaining the amount of useful effect 
given out by any motive-power. It is used 
as follows : — A is a smoothly-turned pulley, 
secured on a shaft as near as possible to the 
motive-power. Two blocks of wood are fit- 
ted to this pulley, or one block of wood and 
a series of straps fastened to a band or 
chain, as in the drawing, instead of a com- 
mon block. The blocks or block and straps 
are so arranged that they may be made to 
bite or press upon the pulley by means of 
the screws and nuts on the top of the lever, 
D. To estimate the amount of power trans- 
mitted through the shaft, it is only necessary 
to ascertain the amount of friction of the 
drum, A, when it is in4notion, and the num- 
ber of revolutions made. At the end of the 
lever, D, is hung a scale, B, in which weights 
are placed. The two stops, C, C, are to 
maintain the lover as nearly as possible in a 
horizontal position. Now, suppose the shaft 
to be in motion, the screws are to be tight- 
ened and weights added in B, until the lever 
takes the position shown in the drawing at 
the required number of revolutions. There- 
fore the useful effect would be equal to the 
product of the weights multiplied by the ve- 
locity at which the point, of suspension of the 
weights would revolve if the lever were at- 
tached to the shaft. 

245. Bayonet joint. On turning the part, 
A, it is released from the L-shaped slot in 
the socket, B, when it can be withdrawn. 

246. Represents a pantograph for copying, 
enlarging, and reducing plans, etc. One 



arm is attached to and turns on the fixed 
point, C. B is an ivory tracing-point, and 
A the pencil. Arranged as shown, if we 
trace the lines of a plan with the point, B, 
the pencil will reproduce it double the size. 
j By shifting the slide attached to the fixed 
point, C, and the slide carrying the pencil 
along their respective arms, the proportion 
to which the plan is traced will be varied. 



247. A mode of releasing a sounding- 
weight. When the piece projecting from 
the bottom of the rod strikes the bottom of 
the sea, it is forced upward relatively to the 
rod, and withdraws the catch from under the 
weight, which drops off and allows the rod to 
be hfted without it. 

248. Union coupling. A is a pipe with a 
small flange abutting against the pipe, C, 
with a screwed end ; B a nut which holds 
them together. 

249. Ball-and-socket joint, arranged for 
tubing. 

250. Anti-friction bearing. Instead of a 
shaft revolving in an ordinary bearing it is 
sometimes supported on the circumference 
of wheels. The friction is thus reduced to 
the least amount. 

251. Releasing-hook, used in pile-driving 
machines. When the weight, W, is suflfi- 
ciently raised, the upper ends of the hooks, 
A, by which it is suspended, are pressed in- 
wara by the sides of the slot, B, in the top 
of the frame ; the weight is thus suddenly 
released, and falls with accumulating force 
on to the pile-head. 



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252. A and B are two rollers which require 
to be equally moved to and fro in the slot, 
C This is accomplished by moving the 
piece, D, with oblique slotted arms, up and 
down. 



253. Centrifugal check-hooks, for prevent- 
ing accidents in case of the breakage of ma- 
chinery which raises and lowers workmen, 
ores, etc., in mines. A is a frame-work fixed 
to the side of the shaft of the mine, and 
having fixed studs, D, attached. The drum 
on which the rope is wound is provided with 
a flange, B, to which the check-hooks are 
attached. If the drum acquires a dangerous- 
ly rapid motion, the hooks fly out by centri- 
fugal force, and one or other or all of them 
catch hold of the studs, D, and arrest the 
drum and stop the descent of whatev^ is 
attached to the rope. The drum ought be- 
sides this to have a spring applied to it, 
otherwise the jerk arising from the sudden 
stoppage of the rope might produce worse 
effects than its rapid motion. 



254. A sprocket-wheel to drive or to be 
driven by a chain. 



255. A flanged pulley to drive or be driven 
by a flat belt. 

256. A plain pulley for a flat belt. 

257. A concave-grooved pulley for a round 
band. 

258. A smooth-surface V-grooved pulley 
for a rqund band. 

2 59. A V-grooved pulley having its groove 
notched to increase the adhesion of the 
band. 

260. A differential movement. The screw, 
C, works in a nut secured to the hub of the 
wheel, E, the nut being free to turn in a 
bearing in the shorter standard, but prevent- 
ed by the bearing from any lateral motion. 
The screw-shaft is secured in the wheel, D. 
The driving-shaft. A, carries two pinions, 
F and B. If these pinions were of such 
size as to turn the two wheels, D and E^ 
with an equal velocity, the screw would re- 
main at rest ; but the said wheels being 
driven at unequal velocities, the screw tra- 
vels according to the difference of velocity. 



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261 262 




267 



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261. A combination movement, in which 
the weight, W, moves vertically with a 
reciprocating movement ; the down-stroke 
being shorter than the up-stroke. B is a 
revolving disk, carrying a drum which winds 
round itself the cord, D. An arm, C, is 
jointed to the disk and to the upper arm, A, 
so that when the disk revolves the arm, A, 
moves up and down, vibrating on the point, 
G. This arm carries with it the pulley, E. 
Suppose we detach the cord from the drum 
and tie it to a fixed point, and then move the 
arm, A, up and down, the weight, W, will 
move the same distance, and in addition the 
movement given to it by the cord, that is to 
say, the movement will be doubled. Now 
let us attach the cord to the drum and re- 
volve the disk, B, and the weight will move 
vertically with the reciprocating motion, in 
which the down-stroke will be shorter than 
the up-stroke, because the drum is continu- 
ally taking up the cord. 

262 and 263. The first of these figures is 
an end view, and the second a side view, of an 
arrangement of mechanism for obtaining a 
series of changes of velocity and direction. 
D is a screw on which is placed eccentrically 
the cone, B, and C is a friction-roller which 
is pressed against the cone by a spring or 
weight. Continuous rotary motion, at a uni- 
form velocity, of the screw, D, carrying the 
eccentric cone, gives a series of changes of 
velor'ty and direction to the roller, C. It 
will be understood that during every revolu- 
tion of the cone the roller would press 
against a different part of the cone, and that 
it would describe thereon a spiral of the 
same pitch as the screw, D. The roller, C, 
would receive a reciprocating motion, the 
movement in one direction being shorter 
than that in the other. 



264. Two worm-wheels of equal diameter, 
but one having one tooth more than the 
other, both in gear with the same worm. 
Suppose the first wheel has 100 teeth and 
; the second 10 1, one wheel will gain one re- 
j volution over the other during the passage 
'of 100 X 1 01 teeth of either wheel across 
I the plane of centers, or during 10,100 revo- 
lutions, of the worm. 



265. Variable motion. If the conical drum 
has a regular circular motion, and the fric- 
tion-roller is made to traverse lengthwise, a 
variable rotary motion of the friction-roller 
will be obtained. 



266. The shaft has two screws of different 
pitches cut on it, one screwing into a fixed 
bearing, and the other into a bearing free to 
move to and fro. Rotary motion of the 
shaft gives rectilinear motion to the mova- 
ble bearing, a distance equal to the difference 
of pitches, at each revolution. 



267. Friction pulley. When the rim turns 
in the opposite direction to the arrow, it 
gives motion to the shaft by means of the 
pivoted eccentric arms ; but when it turns 
in the direction of the arrow, the arms turn 
on their pivots and the shaft is at rest. The 
arms are held to the rim by springs. 



268. Circular into reciprocating motion 
by means of a crank and oscillating rod. 



260. Continued rectilinear movement of 
the frame with mutilated racks gives an 
alternate rotary niotion to the spur-gear. 



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271 




272 



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270. Anti-tricti6n bearing for a pulley. 

271. On vibrating the lever to which the 
two pawls are attached, a nearly continuous 
rectilinear motion is given to the ratchet- 
bar. 

272. Rotary motion of the beveled disk 
cam gives a reciprocating rectilinear motion 
to the rod bearing on its circumference. 

273. Rectilinear into rectilinear motion. 
When the rods, A and B, are brought to- 
gether, the rods, C and D, are thrust further 
apart, and vice versa, 

274. An engine-governor. The rise and 
fall of the balls, K, are guided by the para- 
bolic curved arms, B, on which the anti- 
friction wheels, L, run. The rods, F, con- 
necting the wheels, L, with the sleeve move 
it up and down the spindle, C, D. 

275. Rotary motion of the worm gives a 
rectilinear motion to the rack. 

276. Continuous rotary motion of the cam 
gives a reciprocating rectilinear motion to 



the bar. The cam is of equal diameter in 
every direction measured across its center. 

277. Col. Colt's invention for obtaining 
the movement of the cylinder of a revolving 
fire-arm by the act of cocking the hammer. 
As the hammer is drawn back to cock it, the 
dog, a, attached to the tumbler, acts on the 
ratchet, ^, on the back of the cyliniier. The 
dog is held up to the ratchet by a spring, c, 

278. C. R. Otis's safety-stop for the plat- 
form of a hoisting apparatus. A are the 
stationary uprights, and B is the upper part 
of the platform working between them. 
The rope, ^, by which the platform is hoisted, 
is attached by a pin, by and spring, ^, and the 
pin is connected by two elbow levers with 
two pawls, dy which work in ratchets secured 
to the uprights, A. The weight of the plat- 
form and the tension of the rope keep the 
pawls out of gear from the ratchets in hoist- 
ing or lowering the platform,' but in case of 
the breakage of rope the spring, ^, presses 
down the pin, ^, and the Utached ends of 
the levers, and so presses the pawls into the 
ratchets and stops the descent of the plat- 
form. 



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279. Crank and slotted cross-head, with 
Clayton's sliding journal-box applied to the 
crank- wrist. This box consists of two ta- 
per lining pieces and two taper gibs adjust- 
able by screws, which serve at the same 
time to tighten the box on the wrist and to 
set it out to the slot in the cross-head as' the 
box and wrist wear. 

280. A mode of working a windlass. By 
the alternating motion or the long hand- 
lever to the right, motion is communicated 
to the short lever, the end of which* is in 
immediate contact with the rim of the 
wheel. The short lever has a very limited 
motion upon a pin, which is fixed in a block 
of cast-iron, which is made with two jaws, 
each having a flange projecting inward in 
contact with the inner surface of the rim of 
the wheel. By the' upward motion of the 
outward end of the short lever, the rim of 
the wheel is jammed between the end of the 
lever and the flanges of the block, so as to 
cause friction sufficient to turn the wheel by 
the further upward movement of the lever. 
The backward movement of the wheel is 
prevented by a common ratchet-wheel and 
pawls ; as the short lever is pushed down it 
frees the whee2 and slides freely over it. 

281. The revolution of the disk causes the 
lever at the right to vibrate by the pin mov- 
ing in the groove in the face of the disk. 

282. By the revolution of the disk in which 
is fixed a pin working in a slot in the upright 
bar which turns on a center near the bottom, 
both ends of the bar are made to traverse,^ 
the toothed sector producing alternate recti- 
linear motion in the horizontal bar at the 
bottom, and also alternate perpendicular 
motion of the weight. 



283. By a vibratory motion of the handle, 
motion is communicated by the pinion to 
the racks. This is used in working small 
air pumps for scientific experiments. 

284. Represents a feeding apparatus for 
the bed of a sawing machine. By the revo- 
lution of the crank at the lower part of the 
figure, alternate motion is communicated to 
the horizontal arm of the bell crank lever 
whose fulcrum is at a, near the top left-hand 
corner of the figure. By this means motion 
is communicated to the catch attached to the 
vertical arm of the lever, and the said catch 
communicates motion to the ratchet-wheel, 
upon the shaft of which is a toothed pinion, 
working in the rack attached to the side of 
the carriage. The feed is varied by a screw 
in the bell-crank lever. 

285. Is the movable head of a turning 
lathe. By turning the wheel to the right, 
motion is communicated to the screw, pro- 
ducing rectilinear motion of the spindle in 
the end of whicji the center is fixed. • 

286. Toe and lifter for working puppet 
valves in steam engines. The curved toe 
on the rock-shaft operates on the lifter at- 
tached to the lifting-rod to raise the valve. 

287. Pickering's governor. The balls are 
attached to springs the upper end of each of 
which is attached to a collar fixed on the 
spindle, and the lower end to a collar on the 
sliding sleeve. The springs yield in a proper 
degree to the centrifugal force of the balls, 
and raise the sleeve ; and as the centrifugal 
force diminishes, they draw the balls toward 
the spindle and depress the sleeve. 



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288 





294 



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295 




290 




293 





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288 and 289. The former is what is termed a 
recoil^ and the latter a repose or dead-beat escape- 
ment for clocks. The same letters of reference 
indicate like parts in both. The anchor^ H, L, 
K, is caused, by the oscillation of the pendulum, 
to vibrate upon the axis, a. Between the two ex- 
tremities, or pallets, H, K, is placed the escape- 
wheel, A, the teeth of which come alternately 
against the outer surface of the pallet, K, and in- 
ner surface of pallet, H. In 289 these surfaces 
are cut to a curve concentric to the axis, a ; con- 
sequently, during the time one of the teeth is 
against tne pallet the wheel remains perfectly at 
rest. Hence the name repose or dead-beat. In 
288 the sur^ces are of a differeent form, not ne- 
cessary to explain, as it can be understood that 
any form not concentric with the axis, a, must 
produce a slight recoil of the wheel during the 
escape of the tooth, and hence the term recoil es- 
capement. On the pallets leaving teeth, at each 
oscillation of the pendulum, the extremities of 
teeth slide along the surfaces, ^, e, and </, ^, and 
give sufficient impulse to pendulum. 

290. Another kind of pendulum escape- 
ment. ' 

291. Arnold's chronometer or free escapement, 
sometimes used in watches. A spring. A, is fix- 
ed or screwed against the plate of the watch at b. 
To the under side of this spring is attached a 
small stop, d, against which rest successively the 
teeth of the escape-wheel, B ; and on the top of 
spring is fixed a stud, /', holding a lighter and 
/more flexible spring which passes under a hook, 
ky at the extremity of A, so that it is free on being 
depressed, but in rising would lift A. On the 
axis of the balance is a small stud, a^ which 
touches the thin spring at each oscillation of bal- 
ance-wheel. When the movement is in the direc- 
tion shown by the arrow, the stud depresses the 
spring in passing, but on returning raises it and 
the spring. A, and stop, d^ and thus allows one 
tooth of escape- wheel to pass, letting them fall 
immediately to arrest the next. At the same 
time that this tooth escapes another strikes 
against the side of the notch, g, and restores to 



balance-wheel the force lost during a vibration. 
It will be understood that only at one point is the 
free movement of balance opposed during an os- 
cillation. 

292. Stud escapement, used in large elocks. 
One pallet, B, works in front of the wheel and 
the other at the back. The studs are arranged 
in the same manner, and rest alternately upon 
the front or back psdlet As the curve of the 
pallets is an arc described fi*om F, this is a repose 
or dead-beat escapement. 

293. Duplex escapement, for watches, so called 
from partaking of the characters of the spur and 
crown wheels. The axis of balance carries pallet, 
B, which at every oscillation receives an impulse 
from the crown teeth. In the axis. A, of balance- 
wheel is cut a notch into which the teeth round 
the edge o^ the wheel successively fall after each 
one of the crown teeth passes the impulse pallet, 
B. 

294 and 295. A cylinder escapement 294 
shows the cylinder in perspective, and 295 shows 
part of the escape-wheel on a large scale, and re- 
presents the different positions taken by cyl- 
inder, A, B, during an oscillation. The pallets, 
a, by Cy on the wheel rest alternately on the inside 
and outside of cylinder. To the top of cylinder 
is attached the balance-wheel. The wheel pallets 
are beveled so as to keep up the impulse of bal- 
ance by sliding against the beveled edge of cylin- 
der. 

296. Lever escapement The anchor or piece, 
B, which carries the pallets, is attached to lever, 
E, C, at one end of which is a notch, E. On a 
disk secured on the arbor of balance is fixed a 
small pin which enters the notch at the middle 
of each vibration, causing the pallet to enter in 
and retire from between the teeth of escape-wheel 
The wheel gives an impulse to each of the pallets 
alternately as it leaves a tooth, and the lever 
gives impulse to the balance-wheel in opposite 
directions alternately. 



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297. An escapement with a lantern wheel. 
An arm, A, carries the two pallets, B and C. 



298. An old-fashioned watch escapement. 



299. An old-fashioned clock escapement. 



300 and 301. A clock or watch escape- 
ment ; 300 being a front elevation, and 301 
a side elevation. The pallet is acted upon 
by the teeth of one and the other of two 
escape-wheels alternately. 



, 302. Balance-wheel escapement. C is the 
balance ; A, B, are the pallets ; and D is 
the escape-wheel. 



303. A dead-beat pendulum escapement. 
The inner face of the pallet, E, and outer 



face of D, are concentric with the axis on 
which the pallets vibrate, and hence there 
is no recoiL 



304. Pin-wheel escapement, somewhat 
resembling the stud escapement shown by 
292. The pins. A, B, of the escape- 
wheel are of two different forms, but the 
form of those on the right side is the best. 
One advantage of this kind of escapement 
is that if one of the pins is damaged it can 
easily be replaced, whereas if a tooth is 
damaged the whole wheel is ruined. 



305. A single-pin pendulum escapement. 
The escape-wheel is a very small disk with 
single eccentric pin ; it makes half a revolu- 
tion for every beat of the pendulum, giving 
the impulse on the upright faces of the pal- 
lets, the horizontal faces of which are dead 
ones. This can also be adapted to watches. 



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306. Three4egged pendulum escapement. 
The pallets are formed in an opening in a 
plate attached to the pendulum, and the 
three teeth of the escape-wheel operate on 
the upper and lower pallets alternately. 
One tooth is shown in operation on the 
upper pallet. 



307. A modification of the above with 
long stopping teeth, D and E. A and B 
are the pallets. 



308. A detached pendulum escapement, 
leaving the pendulum, P, free or detached 
frorp the escape-wheel, except at the time of 
receiving the impulse and unlocking the 
wheel. There is but one pallet, I, which 
receives impulse only during the vibrations 
of the pendulum to the left. The lever, Q, 
locks the escape-wheel until just before the 
time for giving the impulse, when it is un- 
locked by the click, C, attached to the pen- 
dulum. As the pendulum returns to the 
right, the click, which oscillates on a pivot, 
will be pushed aside by the lever. 



309. Mudge's gravity escapement. The 
pallets. A, B, instead of being on one arbor, 
are on two, as shown at C. The pendulum 
plays between the fork-pjns, P, Q, and so 



raises one of the weighted pallets out of the 
wheel at each vibration. When the pendu- 
lum returns the pallet falls with it, and the 
weight of the pallet gives the impulse. 



310. Three-legged gravity escapement. 
The lifting of the pallets, A and B, is done 
by the three pins near the center of the 
escape-wheel, the pallets vibrating from two 
centers near the point of suspension of the 
pendulum. The escape-wheel is locked by 
means of stops, D and E, on the pallets. 



311. Double three-legged gravity escape- 
ment. Two locking-wheels. A, B, C, and 
«, b, c, are here used with one set of lifting- 
pins between them. The two wheels are 
set wide enough apart to allow the pallets 
to lie between them. The teeth of the first- 
mentioned locking-wheel are stopped by a 
stop-tooth, D, on one pallet, and those of 
the other one by a stop-tooth, E, on the 
other pallet. 



312. Bloxam's gravity escapement. The 
pallets are lifted alternately by the small 
wheel, and the stopping is done by the ac- 
tion of the stops, A and B, on the larger 
wheel. E and F are the fork-pins which 
embrace the pendulum. 



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313. Chronometer escapement, the form now commonly 
constructed. As the balance rotates in the direction of the 
arrow, the tooth, V, on the verge, presses the passing- 
spring against the lever, pressing aside the lever and re- 
moving the detent from the tooth of the escape-wheel. As 
balance returns, tooth, V, presses aside and passes spring 
without moving lever, which then rests against the stop, E. 
P is the only pallet upon which impulse is given. 

314. Lever chronometer escapement In this the pallets, . 
A, 6, and lever, look like those of the lever escapement 
296 : but these pallets only lock the escape-wheel, hav- 
ing no impulse. Impulse is given by teeth of escape-wheel 
directly to a pallet, C, attached to balance. 

315. Conical pendulum, hung by a thin piece of round 
wire. Lower end connected with and driven in a circle by 
an arm attached to a vertical rotating spindle. The pendu- 
lum-rod describes a cone in its revolution. 

316. Mercurial compensation pendulum. A glass jar of 
mercury is used for the bob or weight. As the pendulum- 
rod is expanded lengthwise by increased temperature, the 
expansion of mercury in jar carries it to a greater height 
therein, and so raises its center of gravity relatively to the 
rod sufl&ciently to compensate for downward expansion of 
the rod. As rod is contracted by a reduction of tempera- 
ture, contraction of mercury lowers it relatively to rod. In 
this way the center of oscillation is always kept in the same 
place, and the effective length of pendulum always the 



3x7. Compound bar compensation pendulum. C is a 
compound bar of brass and iron or steel, brazed together 
with brass downward. As brass expands more than iron, 
the bar will bend upward as it gets warmer, and carry the 
weights, W, W, up with it, raising the center of the aggre- 
gate weight, M, W, to raise the center of oscillation as 
much as elongation of the pendulum-rod would let it 
down. 

318. Watch regulator. The balance-spring is attached 
at its outer end to a fixed stud, R, and at its inner end to 
staff of balance. A neutral point is formed in the spring 
at P by insetting it between two curb-pins in the lever, 
which is fitted to turn on a fixed ring concentric with staff 
of balance, and the spring only vibrates between this neu- 
tral point and staff of balance. By moving lever to the 



right, the curb-pins are made to reduce the length of acting 
part of spring, and the vibrations of balance are made 
faster ; and by moving it to the left an opposite effect is 
produced. . 

319. Compensation balance. /, a, f^ is the main bar of 
balance, with timing screws for regulation at the ends. / 
and f are two compound bars, of which the outside is 
brass and the inside steel, carrying weights, ^, h'. As heat 
increases, these bars are bent inward by the greater expan- 
sion of the brass, and the weights are thus drawn inward, 
diminishing the inertia of the balance. As the heat dimi- 
nishes, an opposite effect is produced. This balance com- 
pensates both for its own expansion and contraction, and 
that of the balance-spring. 

320. Endless chain, maintaining power on going-barrel, 
to keep a clock going while winding, during which opera- 
tion the action of the weight or main-spring is taken off the 
barrel. The wheel to the right is the "going-wheel," and 
that to the left the "striking-wheel." P is a pulley fixed 
to the great wheel of the going part, and roughened, to 
prevent a rope or chain hung over it fi-om slipping. A 
similar pulley rides on another arbor, py which may be the 
arbor of the great wheel of the striking part, and attached 
by a ratchet and click to that wheel, or to clock-frame, if 
there is no striking part The weights are hung, as may 
be seen, the small one being only large enough to keep the 
rope or chain on the pulleys. If the part, ^, of the rope 
or chain is pulled down, the ratchet.pulley runs under the 
click, and the great weight is pulled up by ^, without tak- 
ing its pressure off the going-wheel at all. 

321. Harrison's "going-barrel." Larger ratchet-wheel, 
to which the click, R, is attached, is connected with the 
great wheel, G, by a spring, S, S'. While the clock is 
going, the weight acts upon the great wheel, G, through 
the spring ; but as soon as the weight is taken off by wind- 
ing, the click, T, whose pivot is set in the frame, prevents 
the larger ratchet from falling back, and so the spring, 
S, S', still drives the great wheel during the time the clock 
takes to wind, as it need only just keep the escapement 
going, the pendulum taking care of itself for that short 
time. Good watches have a substantially similar appa- 
ratus. 



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322. A very convenient construction of 
parallel ruler for drawing, made by cutting 
a quadrangle through the diagonal, forming 
two right-angled triangles, A and B. It is 

j used by sliding the hypothenuse of one tri- 
! angle upon that of the other. 

323. Parallel ruler consisting of a simple 
' straight ruler, B, with an attached axle, C, 
I and pair of wheels, A, A. The wheels, 

which protrude but slightly through the un- 
der side of the ruler, have their edges 
nicked to take hold of the paper and keep 
the ruler always parallel with any lines 
drawn upon it. 

324. Compound parallel ruler, composed 
of two simple rulers. A, A, connected by 
two crossed arms pivoted together at the 
middle of their length, each pivoted at one 
end to one of the rulers, and connected 
with the other one by a slot and sliding-pin, 
as shown at B. In this the ends as well as 
the edges are kept parallel. The principle 
of construction of the several rulers repre- 
sented is taken advantage of in the forma- 
tion of some parts of machinery. 

325. Parallel ruler composed of two sim- 
ple rulers, A, B, connected by two pivoted 
swinging arms, C, C. 

326. A simple means of guiding or ob- 
taining a parallel motion of the piston-rod 
of an engine. The slide, A, moves in and 



is guided by the vertical slot in the frame, 
which is planed to a true surface. 

327. Differs from 326 in having rollers 
substituted for the slides on the cross-head, 
said rollers working against straight guide- 
bars, A, A, attached to the frame. This is 
used for small engines in France. 

328. A parallel motion invented by Dr. 
Cartwright in the year 1787. The toothed 
wheels, C, C, have equal diameters and 
numbers of teeth ; and the cranks. A, A, 
have equal radii, and are set in opposite 
directions, and consequently give an equal 
obliquity to the connecting-rods during the 
revolution of the wheels. The cross-head 
on the piston-rod being attached to the two 
connecting-rods, the piston-rod is caused to 
move in a right line. 

329. A piston-rod guide. The piston-rod, 
A, is connected with a wrist attached to a 
cog-wheel, B, which turns on a crank-pin, 
carried by a plate, C, which is fast on the 
shaft. ' The wheel, B, revolves around a 
stationary internally toothed gear, D, of 
double the diameter of B, and so motion is 
given to the crank-pin, and the piston-rod 
is kept upright. 

330. The piston-rod is prolonged and 
works in a guide. A, which is in line with 
the center of the cylinder. The lower part 
of the connecting-rod is forked to permit 
the upper part of the piston-rod to pass 
between. 



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331. An engine with crank motion like 
that represented in 93 and 279 of this 
table, the crank -wrist journal working in a 
slotted cross-head, A. This cross-head 
works between the pillar guides, D, D, of 
the engine framing. 

332. A parallel motion used for the pis- 
ton-rod of side lever marine engines. F, C, 
is the radius bar, and E the cross-head to 
which the parallel bar, E, D, is attached. 

333. A parallel motion used only in par- 
ticular cases. 

334. Shows a parallel motion used in 
some of the old single-acting beam engines. 
The piston-rod is formed with a straight 



336. An arrangement of parallel motion 
for side lever marine engines. The I)aral- 
lel rods connected with the side rods from 
the beams or side levers are also connected 
with short radius arms on a rock-shaft 
working in fixed bearings. 

337. Parallel motion in which the radius 
rod is connected with the lower end of a 
short vibrating rod, the upper end of which 
is connected with the beam, and to the cen- 
ter of which the piston-rod is connected. 



338. Another modification, in which the 
radius bar is placed above the beam. 



339. Parallel motion for direct action en- 



rack gearmg with a toothed segment on I gj^es. In this, the end of the bar, B, C, is 
the beam. The back of the rack works ; connected with the piston-rod, and the end, 
against a roller, A. 



335. A parallel motion commonly used 
for stationary beam engines. 



B, sHdes ic a fixed slot, D. The radius 
bar, F, A, is connected at F with a fixed 
pivot, and at A, midway between the ends 
of B, C. 



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340. Another parallel motion. Beam, D, C, 
with joggling pillar-support, B, F, which vi- 
brates from the center, F. The piston-rod 
is connected at C. The radius-bar, E, A, 
produces the parallel motion. 

341. "Grasshopper" beam engine. The 
beam is attached at one end to a rock- 
ing-pillar. A, and the shaft arranged as near 
to the cylinder as the crank will work. B 
is the radius-bar of the parallel motion. 

342. Old-fashioned single-acting beam 
pumping engine on the atmospheric prin- 
ciple, with chain connection between piston- 
rod and a segment at end of beam. The 
cylinder is open at top. Very low pressure 
steam is admitted below piston, and the 
weight of pump-rod, etc., at the other end 
of beam, helps to raise piston. Steam is 
then condensed by injection, and a vacuum 
thus produced below piston, which is then 
forced down by atmospheric pressure there- 
by drawing up pump-rod. 

343. Parallel motion for upright engine. 
A, A, are radius-rods connected at one end 
with the framing and at the other with a 
vibrating piece on top of piston-rod. 

344. Oscillating engine. The cylinder 
has trunnions at the middle of its length 
working in fixed bearings, and the piston- 
rod is connected directly with the crank, and 
no guides are used. 

345. Inverted oscillating or pendulum en- 



gine. The cylinder has trunnions at its 
upper end and swings lik^ a pendulum. 
The crank-shaft is below, and the piston- 
rod connected directly with crank. 

346. Table engine. The cylinder is fixed 
on a table-like base. The piston-rod has 

j a cross-head working in straight slotted 
guides fixed on top of cylinder, and is con- 
nected by two side connecting-rods with 
two parallel cranks on shaft under the 
table. 

347. Section of disk engine. Disk piston, 
seen edgewise, has a motion substantially 
like a coin when it first falls after being 
spun in the air. The cylinder-heads are 
cones. The piston-rod is made with a ball 
to which the disk is attached, said ball 
working in concentric seats in cylinder- 
heads, and the left-hand end is attached 
to the crank-arm or fly-wheel on end of 
shaft at left. Steam is admitted alternately 
on either side of piston. 

348. Mode of obtaining two reciprocating 
movements of a rod by one revolution of a 
shaft, patented in 1836 by B. F. Snyder, 
has been used for operating the needle of 
a sewing machine, by J. S. Mc Curdy, also 
for driving a gang of saws. The disk, A, 
on the central rotating shaft has two slots, 
^, ^, crossing each other at a right angle in 
the center, and the connecting-rod, B, has 
attached to it two pivoted slides, c^ c, one 
working in each slot. 



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349. Another form of parallel ruler. The | 
arms are jointed in the middle and con- 
nected with an intermediate bar, -by which 
means the ends of the ruler, as well as the 
sides, are kept parallel. 

350. Traverse or to-and-fro motion. The 
pin in the upper slot being stationary, and 
the one in the lower slot made to move in 
the direction of the horizontal dotted line, 
the lever will by its connection with the bar 
give to the latter a traversing motion in its 
guides, ^, a. 

351. Stamp. Vertical percussive falls de- 
rived from horizontal rotating shaft. The 
mutilated toothed pinion acts upon the rack 
to raise the rod until its teeth leave the rack 
and allow the rod to fall. 

352. Another arrangement of the Chinese 
windlass illustrated by 129 of this table. 

353. A modification of the tilt or trip 
hammer, illustrated by 74. In this the 
hammer helve is a lever of the first order. 
In 74 it is a lever of the third order. 

354. A modification of the crank and slot- 
ted cross-head, 93. The cross-head con- 
tains an endless groove in which the crank- 
wrist works, and which is formed to produce 
a uniform velocity of movement of the wrist 
or reciprocating-rod. 

355. The gyroscope or rotascope, an in- 
strument illustrating the tendency of rotat- 
ing bodies to preserve their" plane of rota- ; 
tion. The spindle of the metallic disk, C, 
is fitted to turn easily in bearings in the 1 
ring, A. If the disk is set in rapid rotary ' 
motion on. its axis, and the pintle, F, at one j 
side of the ring. A, is placed on the bearing ; 
in the top of the pillar, G, the disk and ring j 
seem indifferent to gravity, and instead o? | 
dropping begin to revolve about the vertical I 
axis. I 



356. Bohnenberger's machine illustra- 
ting the same tendency of rotating bodies. 
This consists of three rings. A, A", A*, 
placed one within the other and connected 
by pivots at right angles to each other. 
The smallest ring, A^, contains the bear- 
ings for the axis of a heavy ball, B. The 
ball being set in rapid rotation, its axis will 
continue in the same direction, no matter 
how the position of the rings may be 
altered ; and the ring, A^, which supports 
it will resist a considerable pressure tend- 
ing to displace it. 

357. What is called the g}TOscope gover- 
nor, for steam engines, etc., patented by 
Alban Anderson in 1858. A is a heavy 
wheel the axle, B, B*, of which is made in 
two pieces connected together by a univer- 
sal joint. The wheel. A, is on one j)iece, B, 
and a pinion, I, on the other piece, B\ The 
piece, B, is connected at its middle by a 
hinge joint with the revolving frame, H, 
so that variations in the inclination of the 
wheel, A, will cause the outer end of the 
piece, B, to rise and fell. The frame, H, is 
driven by bevel gearing from the engine, 
and by that means the pinion, I, is carried 
round the stationary toothed circle, G, and 
the wheel. A, is thus made to receive a rapid 
rotary motion on its axis. When the frame, 
H, and wheel, A, are in motion, the ten- 
dency of the wheel, A, is to assume a verti- 
cal position, but this tendency is opposed 
by a spring, L. The greater the velocity 
of the governor, the stronger is the tendency 
above mentioned, and the more it overcomes 
the force of the spring, and vice versa. The 
piece, B, is connected with the valve-rod 
by rods, C, D, and the spring, L, is con- 
nected with the said rod by levers, N, and 
rod, P. 



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358. Traverse of carriage, made variable 
by fusee according to the variation in di- 
ameter where the band acts. 



359. Primitive drilling apparatus. Being 
once set in motion, it is kept going by hand, 
by alternately pressing down and relieving 
the transverse bar to which the bands are 
attached, causing the bands to wind upon 
the spindle alternately in opposite direc- 
tions, while the heavy disk or fly-wheel 
gives a steady momentum to the drill-spin- 
dle in its rotary motion. 



360. Continuous rotary motion from os- 
cillating. The beam being made to vibrate, 
the drum to which the cord is attached, 
working loose on fly-wheel shaft, gives mo- 
tion to said shaft through the pawl and 
ratchet-wheel, the pawl being attached to 
drum and the ratchet-wheel fast on shaft. 



362. Alternating traverse of upper shaft 
and its drum, produced by pin on the end 
of the shaft working in oblique groove in 
the lower cylinder. 



363. See-saw, one of the simplest illus- 
trations of a limited oscillating or alternate 
circular motion. 



364. Intermittent rotary motion from con- 
tinuous rotary motion about an axis at right 
angles. Small wheel on left is driver ; and 
the friction rollers on its radial studs work 
against the faces of oblique grooves or pro- 
jections across the face of the larger wheel, 
and impart motion thereto. 



365. Cylindrical rod arranged between 
two rollers, the axes of which are oblique 
to each other. The rotation of the rollers 
produces both a longitudinal and a rotary 
motion oi the rod. 



361. Another simple form of clutch for 
pulleys, consisting of a pin on the lower 366. Drilling machine. By the large 
shaft and a pin on side of pulley. The pul- bevel-gear rotary motion is given to ver- 
ley is moved lengthwise of the shaft by j tical drill-shaft, which slides through small 
means of a lever or other means to bring j bevel-gear but is made to turn with it by 
its pin into or out of contact with the pin on ! a feather and groove, and is depressed by 
shaft. ! treadle connected with upper lever. 



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367. A parallel ruler with which lines | 
may be drawn at required distances apart | 
without setting out. Lower edge of upper ■ 
blade has a graduated ivory scale, on which 
the incidence of the outer edge of the brass 
arc indicates, the width between blades. ^ 

368. Describing spiral line on a cylinder. 
The spur-gear which drives the bevel-gears, 
and thus gives rotary motion to the cvhnder, 
also gears into the toothed rack, ana there- 
by causes the marking point to traverse 
from end to end of the cylinder. 

369. Cjcloidal surfaces, causing pendulum 
to move m cycloidal curve, rendering oscil- 
lations isochronous or equal-timed. 

370. Motion for polishing mirrors, the 
rubbing of which should be varied as much 
as practicable. The handle turns the crank 
to which the long bar and attached ratchet- 
wheel are connected. The mirror is secur- 
ed rigidly to the ratchet-wheel. The long 
bar, which is guided b}^ pins in the lower 
rail, has both a longitudinal and an oscillat- 
ing movement, and the ratchet-wheel is 
caused to rotate intermittently by a click 
operated by an eccentric on the crank-shaft, 
and hence the mirror has a compound move- 
ment. 

371. Modification of mangle-wheel mo- 
tion. The laree wheel is toothed on both 
faces, and an alternating circular motion is 
produced by the uniform revolution of the 
pinion, which passes from one side of the 
wheel to the other through an opening on 
the left of the figure. 

372. White's dynamometer, for determin- 
ing the amount of power required to give 



rotary motion to any piece of mechanism. 
The two horizontal bevel-gears are arranged 
in a hoop-siiaped frame, which revolves 
freely on the middle of the horizontal shaft, 
on which there are two vertical bevel-gears 
gearing to the horizontal ones, one fast and 
the other loose on the shaft. Suppose the 
hoop to be held stationary, motion given to 
either vertical bevel-gear will be imparted 
through the horizontal gears to the other 
vertical one ; but if the hoop be permitted 
it will revolve with the vertical gear put in 
motion, and the amount of power required 
to hold it stationary will correspond with 
that transmitted from the first gear, and a 
band attached to its periphery will indicate 
that power by the weight required to keep 
it still. 



373. Robert's contrivance for proving that 
friction of a wheel carriage does not in- 
crease with velocity, but only with load. 
Loaded wagon is supported on surface of 
large wheef and connected with indicator 
constructed with spiral spring, to show force 
required to keep carriage stationary' when 
large wheel is put in motion. It was found 
that difference in velocity produced no va- 
riatiofi in the indicator, but difference in 
weight immediately did so. 

374. Rotary motion of shaft from treadle 
by means of an endless band running from 
a roller on the treadle to an eccentric on the 
shaft. 



375. Pair of edge runners or chasers for 
crushing or grinding. The axles are con- 
nected with vertical shaft, and the wheels or 
chasers run in an annular pan or trough. 



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376. Tread-wheel horse-power turned by 
the weight of an animal attempting to walk 
up one side of its interior ; has been used 
for driving the paddle-wheels of ferry-boats 
and other purposes by horses. The turn- 
spit dog used also to be employed in such a 
wheel in ancient times for turning meat 
while roasting on a spit. 

377. The tread-mill employed in jails in 
some countries for exercising criminals con- 
demned to labor, and employed in grinding 
grain, etc. ; turns by weight of persons 
stepping on tread-boards on ' periphery. 
This is supposed to be a Chinese invention, 
and it is still used in China for raising water 
for irrigation. 

378. Saw for cutting trees by motion of 
pendulum, is represented as cutting a lying 
tree. 

379 and 380. Portable cramp drills. In 
379 the feed-screw is opposite the drill, and 
in 380 the drill spindle passes through the 
center of the feed-screw. 

381. Bowery's joiner's clamp, plan and 
transverse section. Oblong bed has, at one ! 
end, two wedge-formed cheeks, adjacent 
sides of which lie at an angle to each other, 
and are dovetailed inward from upper edge 



to receive two wedges for clamping the 
piece or pieces of wood to be planed. 

382. Adjustable stand for mirrors, etc., 
by which a glass or other .article can be 
raised or lowered, turned to the right or left, 
and varied in its inclination. The stem is 
fitted into a socket of pillar, and secured by 
a set screw, and the glass is hinged to the 
stem, and a set screw is applied to the hinge 
to tighten it. The same thing is used for 
photographic camera-stands. 

383. Represents the principal elements of 
machinery for dressing cloth and warps, 
consisting of two rollers, from one to the 
other of which the yarn or cloth is wound, 
and an interposed cylinder having its peri- 
phery either smooth-surfaced or armed with 
brushes, teasels, or other contrivances, ac- 
cording to the nature* of the work to be 
done. These elements are used in machines 
for sizing warps, gig-mills for dressing 
woolen goods, and in most machines for 
finishing woven fabrics. 

384. Helicograph, or instrument for de- 
scribing helices. The small wheel, by re- 
volving about the fixed central point, de- 
scribes a volute or spiral by moving along 
the screw- threaded axle either way, and 
transmits the same to drawing paper on 
which transfer-paper is laid with colored 
side downward. 



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385. Contrivance employed in Russia for 
shutting doors. One pin is fitted to and 
turns in socket attached to door, and the 
other is similarly attached to frame. In open- 
ing the door, pins are brought together, and 
weight is raised. Weight closes do6r by de- 
pressing the joint of the toggle 'toward a 
straight line, and so widening the space 
between the pins. 

386. Folding library ladder. It is shown 
open, partly open, and closed ; the rounds 
are pivoted to the side-pieces, which are 
fitted together to form a round i^ole when 
closed, the rounds shutting up inside. 

387. Self-adjusting step-ladder for wharfs 
at which there are rise and fall of tide. The 
steps are pivoted at one edge into wooden 
bars forming string-pieces, and their other 
edge is supported by rods suspended from 
bars forming hand-rails. The steps remain 
horizontal whatever position the ladder as- 
sumes. 

388. Feed-motion of Woodworth's plan- 
ing macliine, a smooth supporting roller, and 
a toothed top roller. 



389. Lifting-jack operated by an eccentric, 
pawl, and ratchet. The upper pawl is a 
stop. 

390. Device for converting oscillating in- 
to rotary motion. The semicircular piece, 
A, is attached to a lever which works on a 
fulcrum, a, and it has attacl.ed to it the ends 
of two bands, Cand'D, which run around 
two pulleys, loose on the shaft of the fly- 
wheel, B. Band, ,C, is open, and band, D, 



crossed. The pulleys have attached to 
them pawls which engage with two ratchet- 
wheels fast on the fly-wheel shaft. One 
pawl acts on its ratchet-wheel when the 
piece, A, turns one way, and the other when 
the said piece turns the other way, and thus 
a continuous rotary motion of the shaft is 
obtained. 



391. Reciprocating into rotary motion. 

The weighted racks, A, A^, are pivoted to 

I the end of a piston-rod, and pins at the end 

of the said racks work in fixed guide-grooves, 

\ b^ b, in such manner that one rack ope- 

I rates upon the cog-wheel in ascending and 

j the other in descending, and so continuous 

rotary motion is produced. The elbow lever, 

C, and spring, d, are for carrying the pin of 

the right-hand rack over the upper angle in 

its guide-groove, b. 



392. Gig-saw, the lower end connected 
with a crank which works it, and the upper 
end connected with a spring which keeps it 
strained without a gate. 

393. Contrivance for polishing lenses and 
bodies of spherical form. The polishing 
material is in a cup connected by a ball-and- 
socket joint and bent piece of metal with a 
rotating upright shaft set concentric to the 
body to be polished. The cup is set eccen- 
tric, and by that means is caused to have 
an independent rotary motion about its axis 
on the universal joint, as well as to revolve 
about the common axis of the shaft and the 
body to be polished. This prevents the 
parts of the surface of the cup from coming 
repeatedly in contact with the same parts of 
surface ot the lens or other body 



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394' C- Parsons's patent device for con- 
verting reciprocating motion into rotary, an 
endless rack provided with grooves on its 
side gearing with a pinion having two con- 
centric flanges of different diameters. A 
substitute for crank in oscillating cylinder 
engines. 

395. Four- way cock, used many years ago 
on steam engines to admit and exhaust 
steam from the cylinder. The two positions 
represented are produced by a quarter turn 
of the plug. Supposing the steam to enter 
at the top, in the upper figure the exhaust 
is from the right end of the cylinder, and in 
the lower figure the exhaust is from the 
left — the steam entering, of pourse, in the 
opposite port. 

396. G. P. Reed's patent anchor and lever 
escapement for watches. The lever is so 
applied in combination with chronometer 
escapement that the whole impulse given 
balance in one direction is transmitted 
through lever, and whole impulse in op- 
posite direction is transmitted directly to 
chronometer impulse pallet, locking and 
unlocking the escape-wheel but once at 
each impulse given by said wheel. 

397. Continuous circular into intermit- 
tent rectilinear reciprocating. A motion 
used on several sewing machines for driv-- 
ing the shuttle. Same motion applied to 
three-revolution cylinder printing-presses. 



398. Continuous circular motion into in- 
termittent circular — the cam, C, being the 
driver. 



399. A method of repairing chains, or 
tightening chains used as guys or braces. 
Link is made in two parts, one end of each 
is provided with swivel-nut, and other end 
with screw ; the screw of each part fits 
into nut of other. 



400. Four-motion feed (A. B. Wilson's 
patent), used on Wheeler & Wilson's, 
Sloat's, and other sewing machines. The 
bar. A, is forked, and has a second bar, B 
(carrying the spur or feeder), pivoted in the 
said fork. The bar, B, is lifted by a radial 
projection on the cam, C, at the same time 
the two bars are carried forward. A spring 
produces the return stroke, and the bar, B, 
drops of its own gravity. 



401. E. P. Brownell's patent crank-mo- 
tion to obviate dead-centers. The pressure 
on the treadle causes the slotted slide, A, to 
move forward with the wrist until the latter 
has passed the center, when the spring, B, 
forces the slide against the stops until it is 
again required to move forward. 



402. G. O. Guernsey's patent escapement 
for watches. In this escapement two bal- 
ance-wheels are employed, carried by the 
same driving-power, but oscillating in op- 
posite directions, for the purpose of coun- 
teracting the effect of any sudden jar upon 
a watch or time-piece. The jar which would 
accelerate motion of one wheel would re- 
tard the motion of other. Anchor, A, is 
secured to lever, B, having an interior and 
exterior toothed segment at its end, each 

' one of which gears with the pinion of bal- 

I ance-wheels. 



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403. Cyclograph for describing circular arcs in drawings 
where the center is inaccessible. This is composed of 
three straight rules. The chord and versed sine being 
laid down, draw straight sloping lines from ends of former 
to top of latter, and to these lines lay two of the rules 
crossing at the apex. Fasten these rules together, and an- 
other rule across them to serve as a brace, and insert a pin 
or point at each end of chord to guide the apparatus, which, 
on being moved against these points, will describe the ^rc 
by means of pencil in the angle of the crossing edges of 
the sloping rules. 

404. Another cyclograph. The elastic arched bar is 
made half the depth at the ends that it is at the middle, 
and is formed so that its outer edge coincides with a true 
circular arc when bent to its greatest extent. Three points 
in the required arc being given, the bar is bent to them by 
means of the screw, each end being confined to the straight 
bar by means of a small roller. 

405. Mechanical means of describing hyperbolas, their 
foci and vertices being given. Suppose the curves two 
opposite hyperbolas, the points in vertical dotted center 
line their foci. One end of rule turns on one focus as a 
center through which one edge ranges. One end of thread 
being looped on pin inserted at the other focus, and other 
end held to other end of rule, with just enough sl.ick be- 
tween to permit height to reach vortex when rule coincides 
with center line. A pencil held in bight, and kept close to 
rule while latter is moved from center line, describes one- 
half of parabola ; the rule is then reversed for the other 
half. 

406. Mechanical means of describing parabolas, the base, 
altitude, focus, and directrix being given. Lay straight 
edge with near side coinciding with directrix, and square 
with stock against the Scime, so that the blade is parallel 
with the axis, and proceed with pencil in" bight of thread, 
as in the preceding. 

407. Instrument for describing pointed arches. Hori- 
zontal bar is slotted and fitted with a slide having pin for 
loop of cord. Arch bar of elastic wood is fixed in horizon- 
tal at right angles. Horizontal bar is placed with upper 
edge on springing line, and back of arch bar ranging with 
jamb of opening, and the latter b.ir is bent till the upper 
side meets apex of arch, fulcrum-piece at its base insuring 
its retaining tangential relation to jamb ; the pencil is 
secured to arched bar at its connection with cord. 



408. Centrolinead for drawing lines toward an inaccessi- 
ble or inconveniently distant point ; chiefly used in per- 
spective. Upper or drawing edge of blade and back of 
movable legs should intersect center of joint. Geometrical 
diagram indicates mode of setting instrument, legs forming 
it may form unequal angles with blade- At either end of 
dotted line crossing central, a pin is inserted vertically for 
instrument to work against. Supposing it to be inconve- 
nient to produce the convergent lines until they intersect, 
even temporarily, for the purpose of setting the instrument 
as shown, a corresponding convergence may be found be- 
tween them by drawing a line parallel to and inward fi-om 
each. 

409. Proportional compasses used in copying drawings 
on a given larger or smaller scale. The uivot of com- 
passes is secured in a slide which is adjustable in the longi- 
tudinal slots of legs, and capable of being j-ecured by a 
set screw, the dimensions are taken between one pair of 
points and transferred with the other pair, and thus en- 
larged or diminished in proportion to the relative distances 
of the points from the pivot. A scale is provided on one 
or both legs to indicate the proportion. 

410. Bisecting gauge. Of two parallel cheeks on the 
cross-bar one is fixed and the other adjustable, and held by 
thumb-screw. In either cheek is centered one of two short 
bars of equal length, united by a pivot, having a sharp 
point for marking. This point is always in a central posi- 
tion between the cheeks, whatever their distance apart, so 
that any parallel sided solid to which the cheeks are adjust- 
ed may be bisected from end to end by drawing the gauge 
along it. Solids not parallel sided may be bisected in like 
manner, by leaving one cheek loose, but keeping it in con- 
tact with solid. 

4ti. Self-recording level for surveyors. Consists of a 
carriage, the shape of which is governed by an isosceles 
triangle having horizontal base. The circumference of 
each wheel equals the base of the triangle. A jjendulum, 
when the instrvmient is on level ground, bisects the base, 
and when on an inclination gravitates to right or left from 
center accordingly. A drum, rotated by gearing from one 
of the carriage wheels, carries sectionally ruled paper, 
upon which per.cil on pendulum traces profile corresponding 
with that of ground traveled over. The drum can be 
shifted vertically to accord with any given scale, and hori- 
zontally, to avoid removal of filled paper. 



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412. Wheel- work in the base of capstan. 
Thus provided, the capstan can be used as 
a simple or compound machine, single or 
triple purchase. The drumhead and barrel 
rotate independently ; the former, being 
fixed on spindle, turns it round, and when 
locked to barrel turns it also, forming sin- 
gle purchase ; but when unlocked, wheel- 
work acts, and drumhead and barrel rotate 
in opposite directions, with velocities as 
three to one. 

413. J. W. Howletfs patent adjustable 
frictional gearing. This is an improvement 
on that shown in 45 of this table. The 
upper wheel. A, shown in section, is com- 
posed of a rubber disk with V-edge, clamp- 
ed between two metal plates. By screwing 
up the nut, B, which holds the parts toge- 
ther, the rubber disk is made to expand 
radially, and greater tractive power may be 
produced between the two wheels. 

414. Scroll gear and sliding pinion, to 
produce an increasing velocity of scroll- 
plate, A, in one direction, and a decreasing 
velocity when the motion is reversed. Pin- 
ion, B, moves on a feather on the shaft. 

415. P. Dickson's patent device for con- 
verting an oscillating motion into intermit- 
tent circular, in either direction. Oscillat- 
ing motion communicated to lever. A, which 
is provided with two pawls, B and C, hing- 
ed to its upper side, near shaft of wheel, D. 
Small crank, E, on upper side 01 lever. A, 
is attached by cord to each of pawls, so that 
when pawl, C, is let into contact with inte- 
rior of rim of wheel, D, it moves in one 
direction, and pawl, B, is out of gear. Mo- 
tion of wheel, D, may be reversed by lift- 
ing pawl, C, which was in gear, and letting 
opposite one into gear by crank, E. 

416. A device for assisting the crank of a 



treadle motion over the dead-centers. The 
helical spring. A, has a tendency to move 
the crank, B, in direction at right-angles to 
dead-centers. 

417. Continuous circular motion into a 
rectilinear reciprocating. The shaft. A, 
working in a fixed bearing, D, is bent on 
one end, and fitted to turn in a socket at 
the upper end of a rod, B, the lower end of 
which works in a socket in the slide, C. 
Dotted lines show the position of the rod, 
B, and slide, when the shaft has made half 
a revolution from the position shown in 
bold lines. 

418. Buchanan & Righter's patent slide- 
valve motion. Valve, A, is attached to 
lower end of rod, B, and free to slide hori- 
zontally on valve-seat. Upper end of rod, 
B, is attached to a pin which slides in verti- 
cal slots, and a roller, C, attached to the 
said rod, slides in two suspended and verti- 
cally adjustable arcs, D. This arrangement 
is intended to prevent the valve from being 
pressed with too great force against its seat 
by the pressure of steam, and to relieve it 
of friction. 

419. Continuous circular motion con- 
verted into a rocking motion. Used in self- 
rocking cradles. Wheel, A, revolves, and is 
connected to a wheel, B, of greater radius, 
which receives an oscillating motion, and 
wheel, B, is provided with two flexible 
bands, C, D, which connect each to a stan- 
dard or post attached to the rocker, E, of 
the cradle. 

420. Arrangement of hammer for striking 
bells. Spring below the hammer raises it 
out of contact with the bell after striking, 
and so prevents it from interfering with the 
vibration of the metal in the bell. 



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421. Trunk engine used for marine purposes. 
The piston has attached to it a trunk at the lower 
end of which the pitman is connected directly 
with the piston. The trunk works through a 
stuffing-box in cylinder-head. The effective area 
of the upper side of the piston is greatly reduced 
by the trunk. To equalize the power on both 
sides of piston, high-pressure steam has been 
first used on the upper side and afterward ex- 
hausted into and used expansively in the part 
of cylinder below. 

422. Oscillating piston engine. The profile 
of the cylinder A, is of the form of a sector. 
The piston, B, is attached to a rock-shaft, C, and 
steam is admitted to the cylinder, to operate on 
one and the other side of piston alternately, by 
means of a slide-valve, D, substantially like that 
of an ordinary reciprocating engine. The rock- 
shaft is connected with a cfank to produce rotary 
motion. 

423. Root's patent double-quadrant engine. 
This is on the same principle as 422 ; but two 
single-acting pistons, B, B, are used, and both 
connected with one crank, D. The steam is ad- 
mitted to act on the outer sides of the two pis- 
tons alternately by means of one induction valve, 
«, and is exhausted through the space between 
the pistons. The piston and crank connections 
are such that the steam acts on each piston dur- 
ing about two-thirds of the revolution of the 
crank, and hence there are no dead points. 

424. Root's double -reciprocating or square 
piston engine. The " cylinder," A, of this en- 
gine is of oblong square form and contains two 
pistons, B and C, the former working horizon- 
tally, and the latter working vertically within it ; 
the piston, C, is connected with the wrist, a, of 
the crank on the main shaft, b. The ports for 
the admission of steam are shown black. The 
two pistons produce the rotation of the crank 
without dead points. 

425. One of the many forms of rotary engine. 
A is the cylinder having the shaft, B, pass cen- 



trally through it. The piston, C, is simply an 
eccentric fast on the shaft and working in contact 
with the cylinder at one point. The induction 
and eduction of steam take place as indicated 
by arrows, and the pressure of the steam on one 
side of the piston produces its rotation and that 
of the shaft. The sliding abutment, D, between 
the induction and* eduction ports moves out of 
the way of the piston to let it pass. 

426. Another form of rotary engine, in which 
there are two stationary abutments, D, D, within 
the cylinder, and the two pistons. A, A, in order 
to enable them to pass the abutments, are made 
to slide radially in grooves in the hub, C, of the 
main shaft, B. The steam acts on both pistons 
at once, to produce the rotation of the hub and 
shaft. The induction and eduction are indicated 
by arrows. 

427. Another rotary engine, in which the 
shaft, B, works in fixed bearmgs eccentric to the 
cylinder. The pistons. A, A, are fitted to slide 
in and out from grooves in the hub, C, which is 
concentric with the shaft, but they are always ra- 
dial to the cylinder, being kept so by rings 
(shown dottea) fitting to hubs on the cylinder- 
heads. The pistons slide through rolling pack- 
ings, a, a, in the hub, C. 

428. The india-rubber rotary engine in which 
the cylinder has a flexible lining, E, of india- 
rubber, and rollers. A, A, are substituted for pis- 
tons, said rollers being attached to arms radiat- 
ing from the main shaft, B. The steam acting 
between the india-rubber and the surrounding 

i rigid portion of the cylinder presses the india- 
I rubber against the rollers, and causes them to 
! revolve around the cylinder and turn the shaft. 

I 429. Holly's patent double-elliptical rotary 
engine. The two elliptical pistons geared to- 
gether are operated upon by the steam entering 
, between them, in such manner as to produce 
i their rotary motion in opposite directions. 

I These rotary engines can all be converted into 
pumps. 



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430. Overshot, water-wheel. 

431. Undershot water-wheel. 

432. Breast-wheel. This holds interme- 
diate place between overshot and undershot 
wheels ; has float-boards like the former, 
but the cavities between are converted into 
buckets by moving in a channel adapted to 
circumference and width, and into which 
water enters nearly at the level of axle. 

433. Horizontal overshot water-wheel. 

434. A plan view of the Fourneyron tur- 
bine water-wheel. In the center are a num- 
ber of fixed curved " shutes" or guides, A, 
which direct the water against the buckets 
of the outer wheel, B, which revolves, and 
the water discharges at the circumference. 



'435. Warren's central discharge turbine, 
plan view. • The guides, a^ are outside, and 
the wheel, ^, revolves within them, discharg- 
ing the water at the center. 



436. Jonval turbine. The "shutes" are 
arranged, on the outside of a drum, radial to 
a common center and stationary within the 
trunk or casing, b. The wheel, ^, is made 
in nearly the same way ; the buckets exceed 
in number those of the shutes, and are set 
at a slight tangent instead of radially, and 
the curve generally used is that of the cy- 
cloid or parabola. 



437- Volute wheel, having radial vanes, ^, 
against which the water impinges and car- 
ries the wheel around. The scroll or volute 
casing, b^ confines the water in such a man- 
ner that it acts against the vanes all around 
the wheel. By the addition of the inclined 
buckets, ^, Cy at the bottom, the water is 
made to act with additional force as it 
escapes through the openings of said 
buckets. 



438. Barker's or reaction mill. Rotary 
motion of central hollow shaft is obtained 
by the reaction of the water escaping at 
the ends of its arms, the rotation being in 
a direction the reverse of the escape. 



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439. A method of obtaining a reciprocating 
motion from a continuous fall of water, by means 
of a valve in the bottom of the bucket which 
opens by striking the ground and thereby empty- 
ing the bucket, which is caused to rise again by 
the action of a counter-weight on the other side 
of the pulley over which it is suspended. 

440. Represents a trough divided transversely 
into equal parts and supported on an axis by a 
frame beneath. The fall of water filling one 
side of the division, the trough is vibrated on its 
axis, and at the same time that it delivers the 
water the opposite side is brought under the 
strean> and filled, which in like manner produces 
the vibration of the trough back again. This 
h<is been used as a water meter. 

441. Persian wheel, used in Eastern countries 
for irrigation. It has a hollow shaft and curved 
floats, at the extremities of which are suspended 
buckets or tubs. The wheel is partly irnmersed 
in a stream acting on the convex surface of its 
floats, and as it is thus caused to revolve, a 
quantity of water will be elevated by each float 
at each revolution, and conducted to the hollow 
shaft at the same time that one of the buckets 
carries its fill of water to a higher level, where 
it is emptied by coming in "contact with a sta- 
tionary pin placed in a convenient position for 
tilting it. 

442. Machine of ancient origin, still employed 
on the river Eisach, in the Tyrol, for raising 
water. A current keeping the wheel in motion, 
the pots on its periphery are successively im- 
mersed, filled, and emptied into a trough above 
the stream. 

443. Application of Archimedes's screw to rais- 
ing water, the supply stream being the motive 
power. The oblique shaft of the wheel has ex- 
tending through it a spiral passage, the lower 
end of which is immersed in water, and the 
stream, acting upon the wheel at its lower end, 
produces its revolution, by which the water is 
conveyed upward continuously through the spiral 
passage and discharged at the top. 



444. Montgolfier's hydraulic ram. Small fall 
of water made to throw a jet to a great height 
or furnish a supply at high level? The right- 
hand valve being kept open by a weight or 
si)ring, the current flowing through the pipe in 
the direction of the arrow escapes thereby till 
its pressure, overcoming the resistance of weight 
or spring, closes it. On the closing of this valve 
the momentum of the current overcomes the 
pressure on the other valve, opens it, and throws 
a quantity of water into the globular air-cham-^ 
ber by the expansive force of the air in which' 
the upward stream from the nozzle is maintained. 
On equilibrium taking place, the right-hand 
valve opens and left-hand one shuts. Thus, by 
the alternate action of the valves, a quantity of 
water is raised into the air-chamber at every 
stroke, and the elasticity Of the air gives uni- 
formity to the efflux. 

445 and 446. D'Ectol's oscillating column, for 
elevating a portion of a given fall of water above 
the level of the reservoir or head, by means of 
a machine all the parts of which are absolutely 
fixed. It consists of an upper and smaller tube, 
which is constantly supplied with water, and a 
lower and larger tube, provided with a circular 
plate below concentric with the orifice which re- 
ceives the stream from the tube above. Upon 
allowing the watet to descend as shown in 
445, it forms itself gradually into a cone on the 
circular plate, as shown in 446, which cone 
protrudes into the smaller tube so as to check 
the flow of water downward ; and the regular 
supply continuing from above, the column in the 
upper tube rises until the cone on the circular 
plate gives way. This action is renewed peri- 
odically and is regulated by the supply of water. 

447. This method of passing a boat from one 
shore of a river to the other is common on the 
Rhine and elsewhere, and is effected by the ac- 
tion of the stream on the rudder, which carries 
the boat across the stream in the arc of a circle, 
the center of which is the anchor which holds 
the boat from floating down the stream. 



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448. Common lift pump. In the up- 
stroke of piston or bucket the lower valve 
opens and the valve in piston shuts ; air is 
exhausted out of suction-pipe, and water 
rushes up to fill the vacuum. In down- 
stroke, lower valve is shut and valve in pis- 
ton opens, and the water simply passes 
through the piston. The water above pis- 
ton is lifted up, and runs over out of spout 
at each up-stroke. This pump cannot 
raise water over thirty feet high. 

449. Modern lifting pump. This pump 
operates in same manner as one in previ- 
ous figure, except that piston-rod passes 
through stuffing-box, and outlet is closed 
by a flap-valve opening upward. Water can 
be lifted to any height above this pump. 

450. Ordinary torce pump, with two 
valves. The cylinder is above water, and 
is fitted with solid piston ; one valve closes 
outlet-pipe, and other closes suction-pipe. 
When piston is rising suction-valve is open, 
and water rushes into cylinder, outlet-valve 
being closed. On descent of piston suction- 
valve closes, and water is forced up through 
outlet-valve to any distance or elevation. 

451. Force pump, same as above, with 
addition of air-chamber to the outlet, to pro- 
duce a constant flow. The outlet from air- 
chamber is shown at two places, from either 
of which water may be taken. The air is 
compressed by the water during the down- 
ward stroke of the piston, and expands and 
presses out the water from the chamber 
during the up-stroke. 

452. Double-acting pump. Cylinder closed 
at each end, and piston-rod passes through 
stuffing-box on one end, and the cyhnder 
has four openings covered by valves, two 
for admitting water and like number for dis- 
charge. A is suction-pipe, and B discharge- 
pipe. When piston moves down, water 



rushes in at suction-valve, i, on upper end 
of cylinder, and that below piston is forced 
through valve, 3, and discharge-pipe, B ; on 
the piston ascending again, water is forced 
through discharge-valve, 4, on upper end of 
cylinder, and water enters lower suction- 
valve, 2. 

453. Double lantern-bellows pump. As 
one bellows is distended by lever, air is 
rarefied within it, and water passes up suc- 
tion-pipe to fill space ; at same time other 
bellows is compressed, and expels its con- 
tents through discharge-pipe ; valves work- 
ing the same as in the ordinary force pump. 

454. Diaphragm forcing pump. A flexi- 
ble diaphragm is employed instead of bel- 
lows, and valves are arranged same as in 
preceding. 

455. Old rotary pump. Lower aperture 
entrance for water, and upper for exit. Cen- 
tral part revolves with its valves, which fit 
accurately to inner surface of outer cylinder. 
The projection shown in lower side of cyl- 
inder is an abutment to close the valves 
when they reach that point. 

456. Cary's rotary pump. Within the 
fixed cylinder there fts placed a revolving 
drum, B, attached to an axle, A. Heart- 
shaped cam, a^ surrounding axle, is also 
fixed. Revolution of drum causes sliding- 
pistons, c^ c, to move in and out in obedi- 
ence to form of cam. Water enters and is 
removed from the chamber through ports, 
L and M ; the directions are indicated by 
arrows. Cam is so placed that each piston 
is, in succession, forced back to its seat 
when opposite E, and at same time other 
piston is forced fully against inner side of 
chamber, thus driving before it water al- 
ready there into exit-pipe, H, and drawing 
after it through suction-pipe, F, the stream 
of supply. 



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457. Common mode of raising water from 1 
wells of inconsiderable depth. Counter- 
balance equals about one-half of weight to be 
raised, so that the bucket has to be pulled 
down when empty, and is assisted in elevating 
it when full by counterbalance. 

458. The common pulley and buckets for 
raising water ; the empty bucket is pulled 
down to raise the full one. 

459. Reciprocating lift for wells. Top 
part represents horizontal wind-wheel on a 
shaft which carries spiral thread. Couplino^ 
of latter allows small vibration, that it may 
act on one worm-wheel at a time. Behind 
worm-wheels are pulleys over which passes 
rope which carries bucket at each extremity. 
In center is vibrating tappet, against which 
bucket strikes in its ascent, and which, by 
means of arm in step wherein spiral and shaft 
are supported, traverses spiral fromone wheel 
to other so that the bucket which has de- 
livered water is lowered and other one raised. 

460. Fairbairn's bailing-scoop, for elevat- 
ing water short distances. The scoop is 
connected by pitman to end of a lever or of 
a beam of single-acting engine Distance 
of lift may be altered by placing end of rod 
in notches shown in figure. 

461. Pendulums or swinging gutters for 
raising' water by their pendulous motions. 
Terminations at bottom are scoops, and at 
top open pipes ; intermediate angles are 
formed with boxes (and flap valve), each 
connected with two branches of pipe. 



402. Chain pump ; lifting water by con- 
tinuous circular motion. Wood or metal 
disks, carried by endless chain, are adapted 
to water-tight cylinder, and form with it a 
succession of buckets filled with water. 
Power is applied at upper wheel. 

463. Self-acting weir and scouring sluice. 
Two leaves turn on pivots below centers ; 
upper leaf much larger than lower, and turns 
in direction of stream, while lower turns 
against it. Top edge of lower leaf overlaps 
bottom edge of upper one and is forced 
against it by pressure of water. In ordinary 
states of stream, counteracting pressures 
keep weir vertical and closed, as in the left- 
hand figure, and water flows through notch 
in upper leaf ; but on water rising above 
ordinary level, pressure above from greater 
surface and leverage overcomes resistance 
below, upper leaf turns over, pushing back 
lower, reducing obstructions and opening at 
i bed a passage to deposit. 

! 464. Hiero's fountain. Water being poured 
j into upper vessel descends tube on right 
j into lower ; intermediate vessel being also 
\ filled and more water poured into upper, 
, confined air in cavities over water in lower 
' and intermediate vessels and in communi- 
' cation tube on left, being compressed, drives 
I by its elastic force a jet up central tube. 

465. Balance pumps. Pair worked re- 
j ciprocally by a person pressing alternately 
1 on opposite ends of lever or beam. 



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466. Hydrostatic press. Water forced by the 
pump through the small pipe into the ram cylin- 
der and under the solid ram, presses up the ram. 
The amount of force obtained is in proportion 
to the relative areas or squares of diameters of 
the pump-plunger and ram. Suppose, for in- 
stance, the pump-plunger to be one inch diameter 
and the ram thirty inches, the upward pressure 
received by the ram would be 900 times the 
downward pressure of the plunger. 
, 467. Robertson's hydrostatic jack. In this 
the ram is stationary upon a hollow base and the 
cylinder with claw attached slides upon it. The 
pump takes the water from the hollow base and 
forces it through a pipe in the ram into the cylin- 
der, and so raises the latter. At the bottom of 
pipe there is a valve operated by a thumb-screw 
to let back the water and lower the load as 
gradually as may be desired. 

468. Flexible water main, plan and section. 
Two pipes of 1$ and 18 inches interior diameter, 
having some of their joints thus formed, conduct 
Walter across the Clyde to Glasgow Water-works. 
Pipes are secured to strong log frames, hav- 
ing hinges with horizontal pivots. Frames and 
pipes were put together on south side of the 
river, and, the north end of pipe being plugged, 
they were hauled across by machinery on north 
side, their flexible structure enabling them to 
follow the bed. 

469. French invention for obtaining rotary 
motion from different temperatures in two bodies 
of water. Two cisterns contain water : that in 
left at natural temperature and that in right 
higher. In right is a water-wheel geared with 
Archimedean screw in left. From spiral screw 
of the latter a pipe extends over and passes to 
the under side of wheel. Machine is started by 
turning screw in opposite direction to that for 
raising water, thus forcing down air, which 
ascends in tube, crosses and descends, and im- 
parts motion to wheel ; and its volume increasing 
with change of temperature, it is said, keeps the 
machine in motion. We are not informed how 
the difference of temperature is to be maintained. 

470. Steam hammer. Cylinder fixed above 
and hammer attached to lower end of piston-rod. 



Steam being alternately admitted below piston 
and allowed to escape, raises and lets fall the 
hammer. 

471. Hotchkiss's atmospheric hammer ; de- 
rives the force of its blow from compressed air- 
Hammer head, C, is attached to a piston fitted 
to a cylinder, B, which is connected by a rod, 
D, with a crank. A, on the rotary drivmg-shaft. 
As the cylinder ascends, air entering hole, <r, is 
compressed below piston and lifts hammer. As 
cylinder descends, air entering hole, <f, is com- 
pressed above and is stored up to produce the 
blow by its instant expansion after the crank and 
connecting-rod turn bottom center. 

472. Grimshaw's compressed air hammer. 
The head of this hammer is attached to a piston, 
A, which works in a cylinder, B, into which air 
is admitted — like steam to a steam engine — 
above and below the piston by a slide-valve on 
top. The air is received from a reservoir, C, in 
the framing, supplied by an air pump, D, driven 
by a crank on the rotary driving-shaft, E. 

473. Air-pump of simple construction. Smaller 
tub inverted in larger one. The latter contains 
water to upper dotted line, and the pipe from 
shaft or space to be exhausted passes through it 
to a few inches above water, terminating with 
valve opening upward. Upper tub has short 
pipe and upwardly- opening valve at top, and is 
suspended by ropes from levers. When upper 
tub descends, great part of air within is expelled 
through upper valve, so that, when afterward 
raised, rarefaction within causes gas or air to 
ascend through the lower valve. This pump 
was successfully used for drawing off carbonic 
acid from a large and deep shaft. 

474^ i^olipile or Hero's steam toy, described 
by Hero, of Alexandria, 130 years B.C., and now 
regarded as the first steam engine, the rotary 
form of which it maybe considered to represent. 
From the lower vessel, or boiler, rise two pipes 
conducting steam to globular vessel above, and 
forming pivots on which the said vessel is 
caused to revolve in the direction of arrows, by 
the escape of steam through a number of bent 
arms. This works 'on the same principle as 
Barker's mill, 438 in this table. 



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475, Bilge ejector (Brear's patent) for discharging bilge- 
water from vessels, or tor raising and forcing water under 
various circumstances. D is a chamber having attached a 
suction-pipe, B, and discharge-pipe, C, and having a steam- 
pipe entering at one side, with a nozzle directed toward the 
discharge-pipe. A iet of steam entering through A expels 
the air from D and C, produces a vacuum in B, and causes 
water to rise through B, and pass through D and C, in a 
regular and constant stream. Compressed air may be used 
as a substitute for steam. 



476. Another apparatus operating on the same principle 
as the foregoing. It is termed a steam siphon pump 
(Lansdell's patent). A is the jet-pipe ; B, B, are two suc- 
tion-pipes, having a forked connection with the discharge- 
pipe, C. The steam jet-pipe entering at the fork oflfers no 
obstacle to the upward passage of the water, which moves 
upward in an unbroken current. 



477. Steam trap for shutting in steam, but providing for 
the escape of water from steam coils and radiators (Hoard 
& Wiggiu's patent). It consists of a box, connected at A 
with the tnd oi ihe coil or the waste-pipe, having an outlet 
at B, and furnished with a hollow valve, D, the bottom of 
which is composed of a flexible diaphragm. Valve is filled 
with liquid, and hennetically seeded, and its diaphragm 
rests upon a bridge over the outlet-pipe. The presence of 
steam in the outer box so heats the water in valve that the 
diaphragm expands and raises valve up to the seat, «, a. 
Water of condensation accumulating reduces the tempera- 
ture of valve ; and as the liquid in vaJve contracts, dia- 
phragm allows valve to descend and let water off. 



478. Another steam trap (Ray's patent). Valve, a, 
closes and opens by longitudinal expansion and contraction 
of waste-pipe. A, which terminates in the middle of an at- 
tached hollow sphere, C. A portion of the pipe is firmly 
secured to a fixed support, B. Valve consists of a plunger 
which works in a stuffing-box in the sphere, opposite the 
end of the pipe, and it is pressed toward the end of the 
pipe by a loaded elbow lever, D, as far as permitted by a 
stop-screw, d, and stop, c. Whetj pipe is filled with water, 
its length is so reduced that valve remains open ; but when 
filled with steam, it is expanded so that valve closes it. 
Screw, b, serves to adjust the action of valve. 



479. Gasometer. The open-bottomed vessel, A, is ar- 
ranged in the tank, B, of water, and partly counterbalanced 
by weights, C, C. Gas enters the gasometer by one and 
leaves it by the other of the two pipes inserted through the 



bottom of the tank. As gas enters, vessel, A, rises, and 
vice versa. The pressure is regulated by adding to or 
reducing the weights, C, C. 



480. Another kind of gasometer. The vessel. A, has 
permanently secured within it a central tube, «, which slides 
on a fixed tube, by in the center of the tank. 



481. Wet gas meter. The stationary case. A, is filled 
with water up to above the center. The inner revolving 
drum is divided into four compartments, B, B, with inlets 
around the central pipe, a, which introduces the gas 
through one of the hollow journals of the drum. I'his 
pipe 1^; turned up to admit the gas above the water, as indi- 
cated by the* arrow near the center of the figure. As gas 
enters the compartments, B, B, one after another, it turns 
the drum in the direction of the arrow shown near its peri- 
phery, displacing the water from them. As the chambers 
pass over they hll with water again. The cubic contents 
of the compartments being known, and the number of the 
revolutions of the drum being registered by dial-work, the 
quantity of gas passing through the meter is registered. 



482. Gas regulator (Powers's patent) for equalizing the 
supply of gas to all the burners of a building or apartment, 
notwithstanding variations in the pressure on the main, or 
variations produced by turning gas on or off, to or from any 
number of the burners. The regulator-valve, D, of vyhich 
a separate outside view is given, is arranged over inlet- 
pipe, E, and connected by a lever, d, with an inverted cup, 
H, the lower edges of which, as well as those of valve, dip 
into channels containing quicksilver. There is no escape 
of gas around the cup, H, but there are notches, 0, in the 
valve to permit the gAS to pass over the surface of the 
quicksilver. As the pressure of gas increases, it acts upon 
I the inner surface of cup, H, which is larger than valve, 
, and the cup is thereby raised, causing a depression of the 
valve into the quicksilver, and contracting the opening- 
notches, ^, and diminishing the quantity of gas passing 
' through. As the pressure diminishes, an opposite result is 
produced. The outlet to burners is at F. 



483. Dry gas meter. Consists of two bellows-like cham- 
bers, A, A', which are alternately filled with gas, and dis- 
charged through a valve, B, something like the slide-valve 
of a "steam engine, worked by the chambers. A, A'. The 
capacity of the chambers being known, and the number of 
times they are filled being registered by dial -work, the 
quantity of gas passing through the meter is indicated on 
me dials. 



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484. A spiral wound round a cylinder to 
convert the motion of the wind or a stream 
of water into rotary motion. 

485. Common wind-mill, illustrating the 
production of circular motion by the direct 
action of the wind upon the oblique sails. 

486. Plan of a vertical wind-mill. The 
sails are so pivoted as to present their edges 
in returning toward the wind, but to present 
their faces to the action of the wind, the 
direction of which is supposed to be as in- 
dicated by the arrow. 

487. Common paddle-wheel for propelling 
vessels ; the revolution of the wheel causes 
the buckets to press backward against the 
water and so produce the forward move- 
ment of the vessel. 

488. Screw propeller. The blades are 
sections of a screw-thread, and their revo- 
lution in the water has the same effect as 
the working of a screw in a nut, producing 
motion in the direction of the axis and so 
propelling the vessel. 

489. Vertical bucket paddle-wheel. The 
buckets, ^, a^ are pivoted into the arms, b, by 
at equal distances from the shaft. To the 
pivots are attached cranks, c^ c, which are 
pivoted at their ends to the arms of a ring, 
d, which is fitted loosely to a stationary ec- 
centric, e. The revolution of the arms and 
buckets with the shaft causes the ring, d, 
also to rotate upon the eccentric, and the 
action of this ring on the cranks keeps the 
buckets always upright, so that they enter 
the water and leave it edgewise without re- 



sistance or lift, and while in the water are 
in the most effective position for propulsion. 

490. Ordinary steering apparatus. Plan 
view. On the shaft of the hand-wheel there 
is a barrel on which is wound a rope which 
passes round the guide-pulleys and has its 
opposite ends attached to the "tiller" or 
lever on the top of the rudder ; by turning 
the wheel, one end of the rope is wound on 
and the other let off, and the tiller is moved 
in one or the other direction, according to 
the direction in which the wheel, is turned. 

491. Capstan. The cable or rope wound 
on the barrel of the capstan is hauled in by 
turning the capstan on its axis by means of 
hand-spikes or bars inserted into holes in 
the head. The capstan is prevented from 
turning back by a pawl attached to its 
lower part and working in a circular ratchet 
on the base. 

492. Boat-detaching hook (Brown & Lev- 
el's). The upright standard is secured to 
the boat, and the tongue hinged to its up- 
per end enters an eye in the level which 
works on a fulcrum at the middle of the 
standard, A similar apparatus is applied at 
each end of the boat. The hooks of the 
tackles hook into the tongues, which are 
secure until it is desired to detach the boat, 
when a rope attached to the lower end of 
each lever is pulled in such a direction as to 
slip the eye at the upper end of the lever 
from off the tongue, which being then liberat- 
ed slips out of the hook of the tackle and 
detaches the boat. 



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Mechanical Movements. 



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493. " Lewis," for 1' ft: ng stone in building. It 
is composed of a central taper pin or wedge, with 
two wedge-like packing-pieces arranged one on 
each side of it. The three piece? are inserted 
together in a hole diillcd into the stone, and 
when the central wedge is hoisted upon it wedges 
the packing-pieces out so tightly against the 
sides of the hole as to enable the stone to be 
lifted. 

494. Tongs for lifting stones, etc. The puli 
on the shackle which connects the two links 
causes the latter so to act on the upper arms of 
the tongs as to make their points press them- 
selves against or into>the stone. The greater the 
weight the harder the tongs bite. 

495. Entwistle's patent gearing. Bevel-gear, 
A, is fixed. B, gearing with A, is fitted to ro- 
tate on stud, Ev secured to shaft, D, and it also 
gears with bevel-gear, C, loose, on the shaft, D. 
On rotary motion being given to shaft, D, the 
gear, E, revolves around A, and also rotates 
upon its own axis, and so acts upon C in two 
ways, namely, by its rotation on its own axis and 
by its revolution around A. With three gears 
of equal size, the gear, C, makes two revolutions 
for every one of the shaft, D. This" velocity of 
revolution may, however, be varied by changing 
the relative sizes of the gears. C is represented 
with an attached drum, C '. This gearing may 
be used for steering apparatus, driving screw-pro- 
pellers, etc. By applying power to C, action may 
be reversed, and a slow motion ot D obtained. 

496. Drawing and twisting in spinning cotton, 
wool, etc. The front drawing-rolls, B, rotate I 
faster than the back ones. A, and so produce a 
draught, and draw out the fibers of the sliver or 
roving passing between them. Roving passes 
from the front drawing-rolls to throstle, which, 
by its rotation around the bobbin, twists and 
winds the yarn on the bobbin. 

497. Fan-blower. The casing has circular 
openings in its sides through which, by the revo- 
lution of the shaft and attached fan-blades, air is 
drawn in at the center of the casing, to be forced 
out under pressure through the spout. 

498. Siphon pressure gauge. Lower part of 
bent tube contains mercury. The leg of the 



tube, against which the scale is marked, is open 
1 at top, the other leg connected with the steam- 
boiler or other apparatus on which the pressure 
is to be indicated. The pressure on the mer- 
^ cury in the one leg causes it to be depressed in 
; that and raised in the other until there is an 
. equilibrium established between the weight of 
j mercury and pressure of steam in one leg, and 
the weight of mercury and pressure of atmos- 
] phere in the other. This is the most accurate 
j gauge known ; but as high pressure requires so 
j long a tube, it has given place to those which 
' are practically accurate enough, and of more 
convenient form. 

499. Aneroid gauge, known as the " Bourdon 
gauge," from the name of its inventor, a French- 
man. B is a bent tube closed at its ends, secured 
at C, the middle of its length, and having its 
ends free. Pressure of steam or other fluid ad- 
mitted to tube tends to straighten it more or less, 
according to its intensity. The ends of tube are 
connected with a toothed sector-piece gearing, 
with a pinion on the spindle of a pointer which 
indicates the pressure on a dial. 

500. Pressure gauge now most commonly used. 
Sometimes known as the " Magdeburg gauge," 
from the name of the place where first manufac- 
tured. Face view and section. The fluid whose 
pressure is to be measured acts upon a circular 
metal disk, A, generally corrugated, and the de- 
flection of the disk under the pressure give.** 
motion to a toothed sector, <?, which gears with i^ 
pinion on the spindle of the pointer. 

501. Mercurial barometer. Longer leg o^ 
bent tube, against which is marked the scale of 
inches, is closed at top, and shorter one is open 
to the atmosphere, or merely covered with some 
porous material. Column of mercury in longer 
leg, from which the air has been extracted, is 
held up by the pressure of air on the surface of 
that in the shorter leg, and rises or falls as the 
pressure of the atmosphere varies. The old- 
fashioned weather-glass is composed of a similar 
tube attached to the back of a dial, and a float 
inserted into the shorter leg of the tube, and 
geared by a rack and pinion, or cord and pulley, 
with the spindle of the pointer. 



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502. An " epicyclic train." Any train of 
gearing the axes of the wheels of which re- 
volve around a common center is pioperly 
known by this name. The wheel at one 
end of such a train, if not those at both 
ends, is always concentric with the revolv- 
ing frame. C is the frame or train-bearing 
arm. The center wheel, A, concentric with 
this frame, gears with a pinion, F, to the 
same axle with which is secured a wheel, 
E, that gears with a wheel, B. If the first 
wheel, A, be fixed and a motion be given to 
the frame, C, the train will revolve around 
the fixed wheel and the relative motion of 
the frame t-o the fixed wheel will communi- 
cate through the train a rotary motion, to B 
on its axis. Or the first wheel as well as 
the frame may be made to revolve with dif- 
ferent velocities, with the same result ex- 
cept as to the velocity of rotation of B upon 
its axis. 

In the epicyclic train as thus described 
only the wheel at one extremity is concen- 
tric with the revolving frame ; but if the 
wheel, E, instead of gearing with B, be 
made to gear with the wheel, D, which like 
the wheel, A, is concentric with the frame, 
we have an epicyclic train of which the 
wheels at both extremities are concentric 
with the frame. In this train we may either 
communicate the driving motion to the arm 
and one extreme wheel, in order to produce 
an aggregate rotation of the other extreme 
wheel, or motion may be given to the two 
extreme wheels, A and D, of the train, and' 



the aggregate motion will thus be commu- 
nicated to the arm. 

503. A very simple form of the epicyclic 
train, in which F, G, is the arm, secured to 
the central shaft, Aj upon which are loosely 
fitted the bevel-wheels, C, D. The arm is 
formed into an axle for the bevel-wheel, B, 
which is fitted to turn freely upon it. Mo- 
tion may be given to the two wheels, C, D, 
in order to produce aggregate motion of the 
arm, or else to the arm and one of said 
wheels in order to produce aggregate mo- 
tion of the other wheel., 

504. " Ferguson's mechanical paradox," 
designed to show a curious property of the 
epicyclic train. The wheel. A, is fixed upon 
a stationary stud about which the af m, C, D, 
revolves. In this arm are two pins, M, N, 
upon one of which is fitted loosely a thick 
wheel, B, gearing with A, and upon the 
other are three loose wheels, E, F, G, all 
gearing with B. When the arm, C, D, is 
turned round on the stud, motion is given 
to the three wheels, E, F, G, on their com- 
mon axis, viz., the pin, N ; the three form- 
ing with the intermediate wheel, B, and the 
wheel. A, three distinct epicyclic trains. Sup- 
pose A to have twenty teeth, F twenty, E twen- 
ty-one, and G nineteen ; as the arm, E, C, D, 
is turned round, F will appear not to turn on 
its axis, as any point in its circumference 
will always point in one direction, while E 
will appear to turn slowly in one and G in 
the other direction, which — an apparent para- 
dox — ^gave rise to the name of the apparatus. 



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Mechanical Movements. 



505. Another simple form of the epicyc- 
lic train, in which the arm, D, carries a pin- 
ion, B, which gears both witli a spur-wheel, 
A, and an annular wheel, C, both concentric 
with the axis of the arm. Either of the 
wheels, A, C, may be stationary, and the 
revolution of the arm and pinion will give 
motion to the other wheel. 

506. Another epicyclic train in which nei- 
ther the first nor la^t wheel is fixed, m^ «, 
is a shaft to which is firmly secured the 
train-bearing arm, ^, /, which carries the 
two wheels, d^ e, secured together, but ro- 
tating upon the arm itself. The wheels, b 
and c, are united and turn together, freely 
upon the shaft, m^ nj the wheels, f and g^ 
are also secured together, but turn together 
freely on the shaft, m^n. The wheels, c^ d, 
e and f, constitute an epicyclic train of 
which c is the first and f the last wheel. 
A shaft, A, is emp.oyed as a driver, and has 
firmly secured to it two wheels, a and h, the 
first of which gears with the wheel, b, and 
thus communicates motion to the first wheel, 
c, of the epicyclic train, and the wheel, h, drives 
the wheel, g, which thus gives motion to 
the last wheel, f. Motion communicated 
in this way to the two ends of the train 



produces an aggregate motion of the arm, 
k, /, and shaft, w, n. 

This train may be modified ; for instance, 
suppose the wheels, ^ and j^ to be disunited, 
g to be fixed to the shaft, m, «, and f only 
running loose upon it. The driving-shaft, 
A, will as before communicate motion to 
the first wheel, c, of the epicyclic train by 
means of the wheels, a and b, and will also 
by h cause the wheel, g, the shaft, m, «, and 
the train-bearing arm, k, I, to revolve, and 
the aggregate rotation will be given to the 
loose wheel, f, 

507. Another form of epicyclic train de- 
signed for producing a very slow motion. 
m IS 3. fixed shaft upon which is loosely 
fitted a long sleeve, to the lower end of 
which is fixed a wheel, D, and to the upper 
end a wheel, E. Upon this long sleeve 
there is fitted a shorter one which carries 
at its extremities the wheels, A and H. A 
wheel, C, gears with both D and A, and a 
train-bearing arm, m, n, which revolves 
freely upon the shaft, m, p, carries upon a 
stud at n the united wheels, F and G. If 
A have 10 teeth, C 100, D 10, E 61, F, 49, 
G 41, and H 51, there will be 25,000 revo- 
lutions of the train-bearing arm, m, n, for 
one of the wheel, C. 



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HENRY T, BROWN, 

Author of "507 Mechanical Movements." 



EDWARD C. SEWARD, 

Mechanical Engineer and Expert; 



BROWN & SEWARD, 



SUCCESSORS TO 



BROWN & HALL, 



(Established In 1864.) 



Solicitors of American & Foreign Patents. 

EXPERTS IK FATEKT CAUSES. 



Patents and Reissues Obtained. 

Rejected Applications Prosecuted. 

Forfeited and Abandoned Applications Renewed. 

Preliminary Examinations Made. 

Caveats Filed. 

Design Patents Obtained. 

Trade- Marks Registered. 

Copyrights Secured for Prints and Labels. 

Assignments and Licenses Pre- 
pared and Recorded. 

Interferences Conducted. 



Appeals Attended to. 

Searches and Opinions as to Novelty, Validity, and 
Ownership. 

Copies of Patents and Official 

Records and Files 

Furnished. 

Patents secured in Great Britain, France, Germany, 

Belgium, Austria, Spain and Cuba, Russia, 

and other European Countries. 

Canadian, Australian, and other British Colonial 
Patents obtained. 



Branch Offices in Washington, D. C, and Agencies in all principal Foreign Cities, 



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HOW TO SECURE PATENTS. 



THE 




UNITED STATES. 



To obtain a patent is one thing, but to secure that protection which a patent ought to afford is another. Hun- 
dreds, if not thousands, of patents are granted every year which could stand no legal test, simply for the reason that 
the specifications and claims are not properly drawn. Inventors who intend to take out- patents for their inventions 
should, therefore, be very particular in the selection of their solicitors. 

The Patent Agency of BROWN & SEWARD is one of the most extensive in the world, and, what is more impor- 
tant, the reputation it has obtained and maintained during the twenty years of its existence is of the very highest 
character. It has been the most successful agency in the United States, the number of patents obtained in propor- 
tion to the number of applications and the importance of the claims of those patents being considered. The success 
of this agency is due to the personal supervision of the members of the firm, the senior of whom has had thirty-eight 
years' uninterrupted practice in the business, and whose experience has, perhaps, been more extensive and varied 
than that of any other solicitor. Every application for a patent entrusted to this firm is prepared or personally con- 
ducted by one of the principals. This is a great and obvious advantage, which is so well appreciated that a client 
who has once obtained the services of this agency seldom afterwards seeks the services of any other solicitor. 

'CONSULTATIONS. 
The principal office of BROWN & SEWARD is at No. 261-263 Broadway (corner of Warren Street) New York, 
where inventors will always meet with a cordial reception, and opinions as to the Novelty and Patentability of In- 
ventions are given free of charge. Inventors residing at a distance are invited to send by mail descriptions of- their 
inventions, which will be properly examined, and on which written opinions will be sent by return mail. All com- 
munications are treated as confidential. In some cases it may be desirable to make a preliminary examination 
i:i the l*atent Office, and for this a fee of $5 will be charged. 

HOW TO PROCEED-PATENTS FOR INVENTIONS. 

Since the practice of the Patent Office has been so changed that models are very rarely required with applica- 
tions for patents, the expense to which an inventor is subjected in obtaining a patent is, in most cases, much less 
than it used to be, although the drawings are generally required to be more complete than was necessary when 
a model was furnished. 

When an inventor intends or desires to apply for a patent, unless he can apply personally at the office of Brown 
& Seward, bringing with him a sample of the best drawing of his invention that he can make, he should send there 
the be«;t description thereof which he can give in writing, and, when the case admits of a drawing, one should accom- 
pany such description. His invention will then be carefully examined by a member of the firm, and if it be decided 



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that a patent is to be applied for, the payment of 9^5 (amount of first Government fee) will be required, and the 
papers prepared for his signature and oath. These can be forwarded to him with iubtructions for their execution. 
if he cannot appear at the office. The agency fee charged by Brown & Seward will depend upon the labor involved, 
but in all cases their charge will be as moderate as possible, and is payable when the application has been prepared and 
the case is ready to be forwarded to Washington. This fee includes aU necessary services performed by Brown & Sew- 
ard, through their Branch Office in Washington, to secure the speedy and certain issue of the patent, except in cases 
where unusual difficulties are encountered. On the allowance of the application the final Government fee ($20) is re- 

'*"*'^''*^ PATENTS FOR DESIGNS 

Can be secured at a less cost than Patents for Inventions, but these patents only cover novelty of i.hz.pe or configu- 
ratian. They can be obtained for three and a half, seven, or fourteen years. I'he Government fees are payable in 
one sum, in advance, and are $Jo for three and a half years, $15 for seven years, and $30 for fourteen years. 

CAVEATS. 

A caveat is a confidential communication made to the Patent Office, in which the inventor describes his inven- 
tion previous to taking out a patent. As h notice of priority of discovery it holds good for one year. To secure the 
full benefit which a caveat is intended to confer, the papers should be carefully prepared. The official fee on a caveat 
is iftio, and the agency fee in preparing all the necessary documents is from i^io to $15. Citizens only, or aliens who 
have resided in the United States one year, and made oath of their intention to become citizens, can file caveats. 

TRADE-lttARKS. 

The most certain and definite protection affi:>rded by law for Trade-Marks is Registration in the Patent Office. 
Brown & Seward give special attention to Trade-Marie registrations, which hold good for thirty years. The Govern- 
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BXJEGTED APPLICATIONS, EXTENSIONS, BEISS17ES, INTEREEBANCES, INFRINGEMENTS. 

Messrs. BnowN & Seward also give special attention to the prosecution of applications for patents which have been 
rgected in the hands of other attorneys, and to the re/.ssue 0/ defective Letters-Patent, in both of which branches 
of'^business they have been eminently successful. They also conduct interferences, and give opinions concerning, and 
attend to prosecuting, infringements of Patents. 

EUROPEAN PATENTS. 
Brown & Sbward have their own agencies in all the principal capitals of Europe, and are prepared to secure For- 
eign Patents with the utmost despatch. Mr. Henry T. Brown has had the preparation of more European applica- 
tions than any other person in this country. Cases sent out for European patents should be prepared with great care 
and fidelity. A Special Digest of the Foreign Patent Laws will be furnished on application. Within the compass 
of an advertisement it would be impossible to specify all the advantages which inventors will derive through this 
Patent Agency. 

CANADIAN PATENTS. 

A patent may be obtained in Canada, for a term of 18^ yean, for anv American invention either before or within 
one ^ear after the issue of an American patent for the same invention. The patent majr be obtained by the inventor 
or his assignee, but not by a mere importer or introducer. A model or specimen of the invention is not generally re- 
quired. Brown & Seward are prepared to undertake applications for Canadian Patents at reasonable charges. 
The importance and value of Canadian patents are not so fully appreciated by American inventors as they should be. 

SPEEDY PROSECUTION OF APPLICATIONS. 

Promptness is one of the characteristics of this Agency. Yet new arrangements have recently been made for the 
even more speedy transaction of business. References can be given to many of the oldest and most distinguished 
inventors and the most important manufacturing concerns in tf e country. 

Any further information on any matters relating to Patents or Patent Law will be obtained personally or by 
letter. 

261-263 BROADWAY, NEW YORK. 



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MEXICO AND SOUTH AMERICA, 



THE rapid advance which Mexico and the Countries of South America have 
recently made in the industrial arts have brought them into prominence 
as desirable fields for introducing patented inventions. The laws of most 
of these countries have been so framed as to afford the patentee satisfactory 
protection. 

Brown & Seward have reliable agents, well versed in the requirements of 
the several countries, to take charge of the prosecution of cases, and can as- 
sure their clients of prompt and efficient services. 



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BROWN & SEWARD, 



SOLICITORS OF 




261-263 BROADWAY, NEW YORK. 



As this firm appears under a new name, and the change may not have become known to 
some who have known it under another name, and to some who are personally acquainted 
with its individual member?, some explanation of its standing may not be out of place. 

The senior member, Mr. Henry T. Brown, is one of the oldest and best-known Patent Solicit- 
ors in the United States, having been in practice as an Attorney and Expert for thirty-eight years. 
He was for twelve years senior editor of the ** American Artisan," and for twenty years senior 
member of the well-known firms. Brown, Coombs & Co., Brown & Allen, and Brown & 
Brown, proprietors of the ** American Artisan Patent Agency," and is the author of "507 
Mechanical Movements. " 

Mr. Edward C. Seward, the junior member of the new firm, who fills the place left vacant by 
Mr. Hall's death, is no stranger whose ability remains to be tested. Pie has, for several > ears past, 
handled the most difficult cases of the old firm before the several Patent Office tribunals with 
marked success, and during his business career in Washington, D. C, he established a reputation 
as a Solicitor and Expert well versed in every detail of Office Practice, while his opinions as to the 
novelty and patentability of mechanical structures, and his clear cut, expert testimony in the many, 
important Court cases in which he has been called to testify, have been given great weight. 

The new firm, which was formed in 1890, therefore combines all the requisite qualifications 
for most successfully performing all professional services relating to the securing of patents and 
trade-marks, and the prosecution and defense of all rights pertaining thereto. 

The business of the firm is carried on at No. 261-263 Broadway, corner of Warren Street, New 
York, which is one of the most convenient and easily accessible buildings in the city, with two 
elevators constantly running, and at No. 930 F Street, Washington, D. C, near the United States 
Patent Office. To these offices all persons having business of any kind relating to patents are cor- 
dially invited. 



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EUROP EAN P ATENTS. 

TH E patent systems of the various countries of Europe differ in so many essential respects, not only from that 
of the United States, but from each other, that althouo^h <he applications for patents in those countnes must 
be conducted by attorneys or solicitors in their respective capitals, it is very necessary for all Americans in- 
tending to apply for European patents to first secure the advice and aid of thoroughly competent ageiits in 
this country, so that their applications may be put in proper condition for transmission. 

For European patents models are not required, and hence the total cost ot the patents is limited to the Government 
and agency fees. There are many cases in which, in European countries, as much matter relating to one subject can 
be embraced in one patent as would require two or more separate and distinct patents in the United States. It is im- 
portant that this should be borne in mind by American inventors, and that, in order to secure the greatest possible 
protection at the least expense, they should ask the advice only of such solicitors as are perfectly familiar with for- 
eign practice, and capable of judging how much would be allowed under one payment. In many cases, patents in 
England and France, and some of the other more important countries in Europe, can be secured at a cost in each 
country less than would, with cost of models, be involved in patenting the same amount of subject-matter in the 
United States. , . . ■ . ^ 

Messrs. tJROWiN & Sewaku, of the " American Artisan Patent Agency, are very extensively engaged m procuring 
foreign parents. They have at their command such experience and business facilities as will enable them to prepare 
in the best possible manner, and as expeditiously a> is practicable, such drawings, specifications, and other documents 
as are required. It may be here stated that the senior member of their firm, Mr. Henry T. Brown, during thirty-eight 
years* practic;, has prepared more foreign applications than any practitioner in the Un'ted States. 

Messrs. Ijrown iic bEWAKD tiave aibu su organized their relations with the most experienced and reliable patent 
attorneys in the principal cap)itals of Europe, who are now acting as their agents, that they are enabled to insure the 
best attention to the application of their clients while in progress, and to meet at once any obstacles or difficulties that 
may arise. 

A verjf comprehensive circular, giving valuable information about Euiopean patents, the cost of obtaining them, 
and other important particulars, will be sent by mail on application. 

m" SEND FOR A FOREIGN CIRCULAR. 

Address BROWN & SEWARD, 

261-263 Broadway^ New York. 



TRADE-MARKS, LABELS, AND PRINTS. 

The most reliable protection to be obtained for Trade-Marks is that afforded under the law of 1881, which pro- 
vides for their registration in the United States Patent Office by payment of a Government fee of $25. The protec- 
tion thus obtained is for thirty years and renewable for thirty more, and it may be obtained for Trade-Marks 
which have been in use for any length of time. In order to obtain the fullest advantage of this protection it is very 
essential that the application for registration should be carefully prepared by experienced and skilful persons. 

A Trade-Mark may consist of any new figure or design, or any new word or new combination of words not merely 
descriptive, or a letter or combination of letters. 

The new law of i88i abolishes the old system of copyrighting Tirade Labels and Prints for articles of merchandise, 
and provides for their registration in the Patent Office. Such labels and prints which are not trade -marks can be 
registered for a Government fee of ?6. . . - 

Brown & Seward properiy prepare and prosecute applications for Trade-Mark Registration for an agency fee of 
$xo to $15, and applications for registration of Irade Labels and Prints for an agency fee of $5, Address 

BROWN & SEWARD, 

261-263 Broadway^ New York. 



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